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Infantino A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Santori A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Shah D.A.,4662 Vrooman Drive
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

The objective was to quantitatively document the pathogen community associated with the Fusarium head blight complex in Italian wheat. The observational study was prompted by increased concerns about mycotoxin contamination coupled with a surge in organically grown wheat. During the three-year survey (2004 to 2006) in three geopolitically defined zones (north, centre, south), seedborne pathogens associated with Fusarium head blight in organic bread and durum wheat were assayed by the freezing blotter method and identified to species based on morphological features. The four most abundant species overall, in order from highest to lowest, were Fusarium poae, Microdochium nivale, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. Environment was more influential than wheat cultivar in determining the variances in seed infestation counts. Counts of infested seeds were higher (and more variable) in the north and centre zones than in the south zone. The odds of observing any seed infestation was significantly higher in both the north and centre zones (compared with the south zone) for F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. poae, and M. nivale in durum wheat. There was a significant nonlinear relationship between seed infestation prevalence and incidence, with evident separation of species along the prevalence-incidence curve. Species co occurrence was observed, but associations shifted with wheat type, over years, and among zones. F. poae was not positively associated with any other species. © 2011 KNPV. Source

Shah D.A.,Cornell University | Dillard H.R.,4662 Vrooman Drive
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

Processing sweet corn (Zea mays) growers in New York are more concerned about the cost effectiveness of fungicide use against foliar fungal diseases (common rust and Northern corn leaf blight) and less about whether such sprays will reduce disease intensity. To address this concern, field trials were done in 2006 and 2007 with three processing sweet corn hybrids (Jubilee, Bold, and GH 9597) that differed in susceptibility to common rust and Northern corn leaf blight, and two strobilurin fungicides (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin). Single strobilurin applications were applied in response to foliar disease severity thresholds of 1, 10, and 20%. Single fungicide applications did reduce foliar disease severities. Applications were most cost effective when made in response to the 1 and 10% foliar severity thresholds, and generally only in the susceptible hybrid Bold. Spraying at the 20% severity threshold did reduce final foliar disease severity but was not cost effective. Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin were equally effective in disease management. The results suggest that a single application of a strobilurin fungicide against common rust and Northern corn leaf blight can be cost effective for New York processing sweet corn growers when such an application is made before foliar disease severity exceeds 20%. Copyright © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Davar R.,Payame Noor University | Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Danesh Y.R.,Urmia University | Kholghi M.,Urmia University | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2012

Phoma black stem of sunflower, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, occurs in many countries. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of markers and genomic regions in sunflower associating with Phoma black stem resistance. Genetic variability among 32 sunflower genotypes, including recombinant inbred lines and their parents, M7 mutant lines developed by gamma irradiation, and some genotypes from different countries of origin, was evaluated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Eighty-eight markers were generated at 38 SSR loci, with a mean number of alleles per locus of 2.32. Using susceptibility data of 32 sunflower genotypes against seven P. macdonaldii isolates (Darvishzadeh et al., 2007), one to four markers were associated with each of seven different P. macdonaldii isolates. To reduce the probability of false positives, a sequential Bonferroni-experiment-wise Pvalue was used for each marker trait association tested. The identified markers showed a promising trend, although they did not pass the more stringent bar of statistical significance, and should be studied further. © Firenze University Press. Source

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