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Palo Alto, CA, United States

Best M.G.,Brigham Young University | Christiansen E.H.,Brigham Young University | Deino A.L.,Berkeley Geochronology Center | Gromme S,420 Chaucer Street | And 2 more authors.
Geosphere | Year: 2013

The Indian Peak.Caliente caldera complex and its surrounding ignimbrite field were a major focus of explosive silicic activity in the eastern sector of the subduction-related southern Great Basin ignimbrite province during the middle Cenozoic (36.18 Ma) ignimbrite flareup. Caldera-forming activity migrated southward through time in response to rollback of the subducting lithosphere. Nine partly exposed, separate to partly overlapping source calderas and an equal number of concealed sources compose the Indian Peak.Caliente caldera complex. Calderas have diameters to as much as 60 km and are filled with as much as 5000 m of intracaldera tuff and wall-collapse breccias. More than 50 ignimbrite cooling units, including 22 of regional (>100 km3) extent, are distinguished on the basis of stratigraphic position, chemical and modal composition, 40Ar/39Ar age, and paleomagnetic direction. The most voluminous ash flows spread as far as 150 km from the caldera complex across a high plateau of limited relief.the Great Basin altiplano, which was created by late Paleozoic through Mesozoic orogenic deformation and crustal thickening. The resulting ignimbrite field covers a present area of ~60,000 km2 in east-central Nevada and southwestern Utah. Before post-volcanic extension, ignimbrites had an estimated aggregate volume of ~33,000 km3. At least seven of the largest cooling units were produced by super-eruptions of more than 1000 km3. The largest, at 5900 km3, originally covered an area of 32,000 km2 to outflow depths of hundreds of meters. Outflow ignimbrite sequences comprise as many as several cooling units from different sources with an aggregate thickness locally reaching a kilome ter; sequences are almost everywhere conformable and lack substantial intervening erosional debris and angular discordances, thus manifesting a lack of synvolcanic crustal extension. Fallout ash in the mid-continent is associated with two of the super-eruptions. Ignimbrites are mostly calc-alkalic and high-K, a reflection of the unusually thick crust in which the magmas were created. They have a typical arc chemical signature and define a spectrum of compositions that ranges from high-silica (78 wt%) rhyolite to andesite (61 wt% silica). Rhyolite magmas were erupted in relatively small volumes more or less throughout the history of activity, but in a much larger volume after 24 Ma in the southern part of the caldera complex, creating ~10,000 km3 of ignimbrite. The field has some rhyolite ignimbrites, the largest of which are in the south and were emplaced after 24 Ma. But the most distinctive attributes of the Indian Peak.Caliente field are two distinct classes of ignimbrite: 1. Super-eruptive monotonous intermediates. More or less uniform and unzoned deposits of dacitic ignimbrite that are pheno cryst rich (to as much as ~50%) with plagioclase > biotite ≈ quartz ≈ hornblende > Fe-Ti oxides ±} sanidine, pyroxene, and titanite; apatite and zircon are ubiquitous accessory phases. These tuffs were deposited at 31.13, 30.06, and 29.20 Ma in volumes of 2000, 5900, and 4400 km3, respectively, from overlapping, multicyclic calderas. A unique, and possibly kindred, phenocryst-rich latiteandesite ignimbrite with an outflow volume of 1100 km3 was erupted at 22.56 Ma from a concealed source caldera to the south. 2. Trachydacitic Isom-type tuffs. Also relatively uniform but phenocryst poor (<20%) with plagioclase >> clinopyroxene ≈ orthopyroxene ≈ Fe-Ti oxides >> apatite. These alkali-calcic tuffs are enriched in TiO2, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Nb, and Zr and depleted in CaO, MgO, Ni, and Cr, and have an arc chemical signature. Magmas were erupted from a concealed source immediately after and just to the southeast of the multicyclic monotonous intermediates. Most of their aggregate outflow volume of 1800 km3 was erupted from 27.90 to 27.25 Ma. Nothing like this couplet of distinct ignimbrites, in such volumes, have been documented in other middle Cenozoic volcanic fields in the southwestern U.S. where the ignimbrite flareup is manifest. Magmas were created in unusually thick crust (as thick as 70 km) where large-scale inputs of mantle-derived basaltic magma powered partial melting, assimilation, mixing, and differentiation processes. Dacite and some rhyolite ignimbrites were derived from relatively low-temperature (700-800 °C), water-rich magmas that were a couple of log units more oxidized than the quartz-fayalitemagnetite (QFM) oxygen buffer at depths of ~8.12 km. In contrast to these"main-trend" magmas, trachydacitic Isom-type magmas were derived from drier and hotter (~950 °C) magmas originating deeper in the crust (to as deep as 30 km) by fractionation processes in andesitic differentiates of the mantle magma."Off-trend" rhyolitic magmas that are both younger and older than the Isom type but possessed some of their same chemical characteristics possibly reflect an ancestry involving Isom-type magmas as well as main-trend rhyolitic magmas. Andesitic lavas extruded during the flare up but mostly after 25 Ma constitute a roughly estimated 12% of the volume of silicic ignimbrite, in contrast to major volcanic fields to the east, e.g., the Southern Rocky Mountain field, where the volume of intermediate-composition lavas exceeds that of silicic ignimbrites. © 2013 Geological Society of America. Source


Best M.G.,Brigham Young University | Christiansen E.H.,Brigham Young University | Gromme S.,420 Chaucer Street
Geosphere | Year: 2013

During the middle Cenozoic, from 36 to 18 Ma, one of the greatest global expressions of long-lived, explosive silicic volcanism affected a large segment of southwestern North America, including central Nevada and southwestern Utah in the southern Great Basin. The southern Great Basin ignimbrite province, resulting from this flareup, harbors several tens of thousands of cubic kilometers of ash-flow deposits. They were created by more than two hundred explosive eruptions, at least thirty of which were super-eruptions of more than 1000 km3. Forty-two exposed calderas are as much as 60 km in diameter. As in other parts of southwestern North America affected by the ignimbrite flareup, rhyolite Ash-flow tuffs are widespread throughout the southern Great Basin ignimbrite province. However, the province differs in two significant respects. First, extrusions of contemporaneous andesitic lavas were minimal. Their volume is only about 10% of the ignimbrite volume. Unlike other contemporaneous volcanic fields in southwestern North America, only a few major composite (strato-) volcanoes predated and developed during the flareup. Second, the central sector and especially the eastern sector of the province experienced super-eruptions of relatively uniform, crystal-rich dacite magmas; resulting deposits of these monotonous intermediates measure on the order of 16,000 km3. Following this 4 m.y. event, very large volumes of unusually hot and dry trachydacitic magmas were erupted. These two types of magmas and their erupted volumes are apparently without parallel in the middle Cenozoic of southwestern North America. A fundamental goal of this themed issue is to present basic stratigraphic, compositional, chronologic, and paleomagnetic data on the unusually plentiful and voluminous ignimbrites in the southern Great Basin ignimbrite province. These data permit rigorous correlations of the vast outflow sheets that span between mountain-range exposures across intervening valleys as well as correlation of the sheets with often-dissimilar accumulations of tuffwithin dismembered source calderas. Well-exposed collar zones of larger calderas reveal complex wall-collapse breccias. Calculated ignimbrite dimensions in concert with precise 40Ar/39Ar ages provide insights on the growth and longevity of the colossal crustal magma systems. Exactly how these subduction-related magma systems were sustained for millions of years to create multicyclic super-eruptions at a particular focus remains largely unanswered. What factors created eruptive episodes lasting millions of years separated by shorter intervals of inactivity? What might have been the role played by tears in the subducting plate focusing a high rate of mantle magma flux into the crust? What role might have been played by an unusually thick and still-warm crust inherited from earlier orogenies? Are the numerous super-eruptions, especially of the unusual monotonous intermediates and succeeding trachydacitic eruptions, during the Great Basin ignimbrite flareup simply a result of the coupling effect of high mantlemagma flux and a thick crust, or did other factors play a role. © 2013 Geological Society of America. Source


Hillhouse J.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Gromme S.,420 Chaucer Street
Lithosphere | Year: 2011

We report remanent magnetization measurements from 13 sites in Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the northern Sierra Nevada (38°N-39.5°N). By increasing the number of available paleomagnetic sites, the new data tighten constraints on the displacement history of the Sierra Nevada block and its pre-extensional position relative to interior North America. We collected samples in freshly exposed outcrops along four highway transects. The rocks include diorite, granodiorite, and tonalite with potassium-argon ages (hornblende) ranging from 100 Ma to 83 Ma. By combining our results with previous paleomagnetic determinations from the central and southern Sierra Nevada (excluding sites from the rotated southern tip east of the White Wolf-Kern Canyon fault system), we find a mean paleomagnetic pole of 70.5°N, 188.2°E, A95 = 2.6° (N = 26, Fisher concentration parameter, K = 118). Thermal demagnetization indicates that the characteristic remanence is generally unblocked in a narrow range within 35 °C of the Curie temperature of pure magnetite. Small apparent polar wander during the Cretaceous normal-polarity superchron, plus prolonged acquisition of remanence at the site level, may account for the low dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles and relatively large K value. Tilt estimates based on overlapping sediments, stream gradients, and thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada plutons vary from 0° to 3° down to the southwest. Without tilt correction, the mean paleomagnetic pole for the Sierra Nevada is essentially coincident with the North American reference pole during the Cretaceous stillstand (125 Ma to 80 Ma). At 95% confidence, the apparent latitude shift is 1.1° ± 3.0° (positive northward), and the apparent rotation is negligible, 0.0° ± 4.7°. Correcting for each degree of tilt, which is limited to 3° on geologic evidence, increases the rotation anomaly 2.2° counterclockwise, while the apparent latitude shift remains unchanged. © 2011 Geological Society of America. Source

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