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Bohsali A.,University of Maryland University College | Abdalla H.,University of Maryland University College | Velmurugan K.,University of Maryland University College | Velmurugan K.,405 Research Blvd | Briken V.,University of Maryland University College
BMC Microbiology

Abstract. Background. The HIV pandemic raised the potential for facultative-pathogenic mycobacterial species like, Mycobacterium kansasii, to cause disseminating disease in humans with immune deficiencies. In contrast, non-pathogenic mycobacterial species, like M. smegmatis, are not known to cause disseminating disease even in immunocompromised individuals. We hypothesized that this difference in phenotype could be explained by the strong induction of an innate immune response by the non-pathogenic mycobacterial species. Results. A comparison of two rapid-growing, non-pathogenic species (M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum) with two facultative-pathogenic species (M. kansasii and M. bovis BCG) demonstrated that only the non-pathogenic bacteria induced strong apoptosis in human THP-1 cells and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and dendritic cells (BMDD). The phospho-myo-inositol modification of lipoarabinomannan (PI-LAM) isolated from non-pathogenic species may be one of the cell wall components responsible for the pro-inflammatory activity of the whole bacteria. Indeed, PI-LAM induces high levels of apoptosis and IL-12 expression compared to the mannosyl modification of LAM isolated from facultative-pathogenic mycobacteria. The apoptosis induced by non-pathogenic M. smegmatis was dependent upon caspase-3 activation and TNF secretion. Consistently, BALB/c BMDM responded by secreting large amounts of TNF upon infection with non-pathogenic but not facultative-pathogenic mycobacteria. Interestingly, C57Bl/6 BMDM do not undergo apoptosis upon infection with non-pathogenic mycobacteria despite the fact that they still induce an increase in TNF secretion. This suggests that the host cell signaling pathways are different between these two mouse genotypes and that TNF is necessary but not sufficient to induce host cell apoptosis. Conclusion. These results demonstrate a much stronger induction of the innate immune response by non-pathogenic versus facultative-pathogenic mycobacteria as measured by host cell apoptosis, IL-12 and TNF cytokine induction. These observations lend support to the hypothesis that the strong induction of the innate immune response is a major reason for the lack of pathogenicity in fast-growing mycobacteria. © 2010 Bohsali et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Evans T.G.,405 Research Blvd | Brennan M.J.,405 Research Blvd | Barker L.,405 Research Blvd | Thole J.,Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative

There are nearly ten million new cases and 1.4. million deaths from tuberculosis (TB) each year, and the 90-year old bacille calmette-guérin (BCG) vaccine in widespread use appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence, despite demonstrating reasonable efficacy against complications of infant TB and death. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past ten years, with at least 16 candidates entering human trials, and a few vaccines have entered into Phase 2b efficacy studies. However, different vaccines may be needed due to the varying disease states (naïve, latently infected, or active), the ages affected (infants, adolescents and young adults, the elderly), and patient health status (HIV and immunocompromised patients especially). Modeling has shown that mass vaccination of latently infected populations, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new infection rates. At present, research and development of TB vaccines is hampered by the lack of validated animal models, the absence of correlates of immunity and a human challenge model, as well as by the size and cost of Proof-of-Concept clinical trials. Nonetheless, ongoing research and clinical studies should remove many of these barriers over the next five years, and lead to an increased understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and what may constitute protective immunity during various stages of infection and disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Evans T.G.,405 Research Blvd | Schrager L.,405 Research Blvd | Thole J.,Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative

TB is now the single pathogen that causes the greatest mortality in the world, at over 1.6 million deaths each year. The widely used the 90 year old BCG vaccine appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence despite some efficacy in infants. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past 15 years, with 15 candidates entering human trials; two vaccines are now in large-scale efficacy studies. Modeling by three groups has consistently shown that mass vaccination that includes activity in the latently infected population, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new disease transmission. At present the field requires better validated animal models, better understanding of a correlate of immunity, new cost-effective approaches to Proof of Concept trials, and increased appreciation by the public health and scientific community for the size of the problem and the need for a vaccine. Such a vaccine is likely to also play a role in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance. Ongoing efforts and studies are working to implement these needs over the next 5 years, which will lead to an understanding that will increase the likelihood of a successful TB vaccine. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Beresford B.,405 Research Blvd | Sadoff J.C.,405 Research Blvd
Clinical Infectious Diseases

Current tuberculosis (TB)-control methods, which do not include an adequate vaccine, do not effectively block transmission of TB. Modeling studies show that mass vaccination campaigns using new vaccines could prevent 85.9 million new cases and 14.5 million deaths from 2015 through 2050 in southern Asia alone. After a dearth of many years, the development pipeline now includes 7 vaccine candidates that are being tested in humans. Two nonreplicating viral vectored vaccines have very recently entered the first phase Hb efficacy trial in infants (the first such trial in 80 years) and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Science is moving forward, but the scientific advancements need to be accompanied by political mobilization to ensure that the resources are available to develop, manufacture, and distribute the new vaccines and, thus, save millions of lives. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Jin T.H.,405 Research Blvd | Nguyen L.,405 Research Blvd | Qu T.,405 Research Blvd | Tsao E.,405 Research Blvd

To improve the conventional BCG vaccine in cake appearance and integrity, a new formulation with corresponding freeze drying cycle was developed for a recombinant BCG vaccine. The new formulation contains mannitol as a bulking agent, and trehalose, sucrose and sodium glutamate as stabilizers. The formulation and freeze drying cycle were tested with different super cooling rates and secondary drying temperatures, with or without an annealing process. Thermodynamic behavior was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Varying the secondary drying temperature and presence/absence of an annealing step caused marked differences in cake thermodynamic profiles irrespective of different cooling rates. The annealing process allowed efficient crystallization of the mannitol. Failure to crystallize the bulking agent had the potential to depress the Tg′ and compromise storage stability in the final lyophile by crystallizing from the solid during storage, even when the secondary drying temperature was as high as 40°C. The improved formulation and freeze drying cycle resulted in good recovery of 53.2% during lyophilization and a higher survival rate of 61.7% in an accelerated stability study than the co[nventional BCG formulation and cycle. In summary, full crystallization was necessary for the mannitol bulking formulation. The freeze dried rBCG vials obtained using the formulation and drying cycle developed here met the requirements of BCG vaccine in good cake appearance, high viability post freeze drying and heat stability during storage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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