405 Research Blvd

Rockville, MD, United States

405 Research Blvd

Rockville, MD, United States
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Evans T.G.,405 Research Blvd | Brennan M.J.,405 Research Blvd | Barker L.,405 Research Blvd | Thole J.,TuBerculosis Vaccine Initiative
Vaccine | Year: 2013

There are nearly ten million new cases and 1.4. million deaths from tuberculosis (TB) each year, and the 90-year old bacille calmette-guérin (BCG) vaccine in widespread use appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence, despite demonstrating reasonable efficacy against complications of infant TB and death. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past ten years, with at least 16 candidates entering human trials, and a few vaccines have entered into Phase 2b efficacy studies. However, different vaccines may be needed due to the varying disease states (naïve, latently infected, or active), the ages affected (infants, adolescents and young adults, the elderly), and patient health status (HIV and immunocompromised patients especially). Modeling has shown that mass vaccination of latently infected populations, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new infection rates. At present, research and development of TB vaccines is hampered by the lack of validated animal models, the absence of correlates of immunity and a human challenge model, as well as by the size and cost of Proof-of-Concept clinical trials. Nonetheless, ongoing research and clinical studies should remove many of these barriers over the next five years, and lead to an increased understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and what may constitute protective immunity during various stages of infection and disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Evans T.G.,405 Research Blvd | Schrager L.,405 Research Blvd | Thole J.,Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative
Vaccine | Year: 2016

TB is now the single pathogen that causes the greatest mortality in the world, at over 1.6 million deaths each year. The widely used the 90 year old BCG vaccine appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence despite some efficacy in infants. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past 15 years, with 15 candidates entering human trials; two vaccines are now in large-scale efficacy studies. Modeling by three groups has consistently shown that mass vaccination that includes activity in the latently infected population, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new disease transmission. At present the field requires better validated animal models, better understanding of a correlate of immunity, new cost-effective approaches to Proof of Concept trials, and increased appreciation by the public health and scientific community for the size of the problem and the need for a vaccine. Such a vaccine is likely to also play a role in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance. Ongoing efforts and studies are working to implement these needs over the next 5 years, which will lead to an understanding that will increase the likelihood of a successful TB vaccine. © 2016 The Authors.


Jin T.H.,405 Research Blvd | Nguyen L.,405 Research Blvd | Qu T.,405 Research Blvd | Tsao E.,405 Research Blvd
Vaccine | Year: 2011

To improve the conventional BCG vaccine in cake appearance and integrity, a new formulation with corresponding freeze drying cycle was developed for a recombinant BCG vaccine. The new formulation contains mannitol as a bulking agent, and trehalose, sucrose and sodium glutamate as stabilizers. The formulation and freeze drying cycle were tested with different super cooling rates and secondary drying temperatures, with or without an annealing process. Thermodynamic behavior was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Varying the secondary drying temperature and presence/absence of an annealing step caused marked differences in cake thermodynamic profiles irrespective of different cooling rates. The annealing process allowed efficient crystallization of the mannitol. Failure to crystallize the bulking agent had the potential to depress the Tg′ and compromise storage stability in the final lyophile by crystallizing from the solid during storage, even when the secondary drying temperature was as high as 40°C. The improved formulation and freeze drying cycle resulted in good recovery of 53.2% during lyophilization and a higher survival rate of 61.7% in an accelerated stability study than the co[nventional BCG formulation and cycle. In summary, full crystallization was necessary for the mannitol bulking formulation. The freeze dried rBCG vials obtained using the formulation and drying cycle developed here met the requirements of BCG vaccine in good cake appearance, high viability post freeze drying and heat stability during storage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | 405 Research Blvd
Type: | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2013

There are nearly ten million new cases and 1.4 million deaths from tuberculosis (TB) each year, and the 90-year old bacille calmette-gurin (BCG) vaccine in widespread use appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence, despite demonstrating reasonable efficacy against complications of infant TB and death. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past ten years, with at least 16 candidates entering human trials, and a few vaccines have entered into Phase 2b efficacy studies. However, different vaccines may be needed due to the varying disease states (nave, latently infected, or active), the ages affected (infants, adolescents and young adults, the elderly), and patient health status (HIV and immunocompromised patients especially). Modeling has shown that mass vaccination of latently infected populations, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new infection rates. At present, research and development of TB vaccines is hampered by the lack of validated animal models, the absence of correlates of immunity and a human challenge model, as well as by the size and cost of Proof-of-Concept clinical trials. Nonetheless, ongoing research and clinical studies should remove many of these barriers over the next five years, and lead to an increased understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and what may constitute protective immunity during various stages of infection and disease.

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