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Raleigh, NC, United States

Zhang W.,401 Research Drive | Vinueza N.R.,Forensic Science Center | Datta P.,401 Research Drive | Michielsen S.,401 Research Drive
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2015

In many applications, a functional additive is blended into a polymer matrix to enhance its properties. However, when the polymer and functional additive are applied to a surface, the functional molecule may be easily lost. In favorable cases, it may be possible to incorporate the additive directly into the polymer as a comonomer. In this study, a functionalized polymer has been obtained through the combination of linking a photodynamic, antimicrobial dye, Rose Bengal, to vinyl benzyl chloride via etherification and then polymerizing this into a water-soluble polymer using chain growth copolymerization. Characterization of the efficiency of synthesis, solubility of the final product, and singlet oxygen production rate has been performed. Dialysis was used to determine the extent of incorporation of the dye into the polymer. The chemical structure of the intermediate produced through etherification has been verified. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Honarbakhsh S.,North Carolina State University | Guenther R.H.,North Carolina State University | Willoughby J.A.,401 Research Drive | Lommel S.A.,North Carolina State University | Pourdeyhimi B.,North Carolina State University
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2013

Therapeutic polylactide (PLA) nanofibrous matrices are fabricated by incorporating plant viral nanoparticles (PVNs) infused with fluorescent agents ethidium bromide (EtBr) and rhodamine (Rho), and cancer therapeutic doxorubicin (Dox). The native virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), reversibly opens and closes upon exposure to the appropriate environmental stimuli. Infusing RCNMV with small molecules allows the incorporation of PVNActive into fibrous matrices via two methods: direct processing by in situ electrospinning of a polymer and PVNs solution or immersion of the matrix into a viral nanoparticle solution. Five organic solvents commonly in-use for electrospinning are evaluated for potential negative impact on RCNMV stability. In addition, leakage of rhodamine from the corresponding PVNRho upon solvent exposure is determined. Incorporation of the PVN into the matrices are evaluated via transmission electron, scanning electron and fluorescent microscopies. Finally, the percent cumulative release of doxorubicin from both PLA nanofibers and PLA and polyethylene oxide (PEO) hybrid nanofibers demonstrate tailored release due to the incorporation of PVNDox as compared to the control nanofibers with free Dox. Preliminary kinetic analysis results suggest a two-phase release profile with the first phase following a hindered Fickian transport mechanism for the release of Dox for the polymer-embedded PVNs. In contrast, the nanofiber matrices that incorporate PVNs through the immersion processing method followed a pseudo-first order kinetic transport mechanism. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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