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Stavros A.,401 General Army Hospital | Smaragda A.,Saint Savvas Oncologic Anticancer Institute | Despoina P.,Saint Savvas Oncologic Anticancer Institute | Dimitra D.,Saint Savvas Oncologic Anticancer Institute
Diagnostic Cytopathology | Year: 2013

Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor with aggressive biological behavior, high recurrence rate, and a complex microscopic appearance with many different histologic patterns. Primary ameloblastoma is also described in extragnathic locations. Because of its wide morphologic spectrum, which is mirrored also in cytologic smears, a thorough study of distinctive features is required to reach a reliable diagnosis. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma were examined both cytologically and histologically. The patients were seven women and five men 24-85 years old, mean age being 64 years. Eleven cases were primary tumors of the mandible and maxilla, and one case was a lung tumor metastatic from the tibia. The epithelial element in the cytologic smears of the various cases was morphologically diverse. The basaloid pattern and minimal nuclear atypia were rather constant findings, and the most helpful features toward reaching a cytological diagnosis. However in most cases, careful consideration of the clinical, radiological, cytological, and occasionally immunocytochemical data was required to rule out other entities with similar cytological findings. In some cases, the final diagnosis was only possible by histologic examination. Due to their variable microscopic morphology, ameloblastomas are quite often misdiagnosed for other entities, both benign and malignant. Nevertheless, when one is aware of their distinctive features, an accurate diagnosis can be made by fine-needle aspiration cytology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological findings. Both the preoperative surgical planning and the postoperative follow-up of the patients benefit significantly from this method. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Skouras V.S.,401 General Army Hospital | Skouras V.S.,Hygeia Hospital | Kalomenidis I.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2016

Purpose of review: This article summarizes current data regarding the accuracy of pleural fluid tests assisting the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis (TBP). Recent findings: No pleural fluid test reliably rules-in TBP in settings with low TBP prevalence. Interferon-γ) alone or in combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) is more reliable than ADA for this purpose in nonlow prevalences. ADA can reliably rule-out TBP in prevalences of less than 40% although in higher prevalences the product of interleukin-27 and ADA is the most accurate rule-out test. Summary: The definite diagnosis of TBP requires the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pleural fluid or biopsies. Because of the low sensitivity of pleural fluid cultures and the invasiveness of pleural biopsy techniques, the concept of a pleural fluid test that accurately establishes or excludes TBP diagnosis has been proposed. Numerous pleural fluid tests have been evaluated for this purpose with ADA being the most widely accepted one. During the last years, it has been demonstrated that the ability of ADA to rule-in or rule-out TBP is affected by the prevalence of TBP in the setting where the test is used. The complementary use of interferon-γ or interleukin-27 increases the ability of ADA to rule-in or rule-out the disease, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Stamatis E.D.,401 General Army Hospital | Karaoglanis G.C.,401 General Army Hospital
Foot and Ankle Clinics | Year: 2014

Reports have demonstrated that peroneal tendon tears can be successfully treated by direct repair or debridement and tubularization, based on the extent and nature of the pathology. Irreparable peroneal tendon tears or completely unsalvageable tendons after failure of previously attempted repairs are rare, and as a result there is a lack of high-level evidence to guide the management of these complex injuries. When irreparable tears are encountered the salvage options include tenodesis, bridging of the defect using allografts or autografts, and tendon transfers. The choice of treatment strategy depends on the presence of a functioning tendon or tendons and the viability and excursion of the peroneal musculature. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Stamatis E.D.,401 General Army Hospital | Manidakis N.E.,401 General Army Hospital | Patouras P.P.,401 General Army Hospital
Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery | Year: 2010

Ganglia affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle are rare. The most frequent location of occurrence is the common peroneal nerve at the level of the fibular neck. We report the case of an intraneural ganglion of the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches. Although there have been many previous reports of intraneural ganglion involvement with the common peroneal nerve, deep peroneal nerve, sural nerve, and the posterior tibial nerve, to our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of an intraneural ganglion distinctly localized to the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches. The presumptive diagnosis was made preoperatively using magnetic resonance imaging, and then confirmed postoperatively by pathologic examination. Despite the use of operative magnification, it was impossible to remove all of the cyst elements within the nerve trunk, because the nerve fascicles were intimately intertwined. Therefore, complete resection of the common trunk of the superficial peroneal nerve and its terminal branches was performed, and the proximal stump was buried in a hole in the distal fibula. Two years after the surgery, the patient was pain free and asymptomatic except for cutaneous anesthesia in the distribution of the superficial peroneal nerve. © 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons.


Tsilalis T.,401 General Army Hospital
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of telecytological diagnoses proffered on the basis of digitized images from cervical smears prepared by means of liquid-based cytology. Representative digital cytological images from a total of 404 cervical smears (benign, 135; atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 92; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 62; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 87; squamous cell carcinoma, 26; and adenocarcinoma, 2) were uploaded to the CytoTrainer e-learning telecytology platform (developed in the Department of Cytopathology, "ATTIKON" University General Hospital, Athens, Greece) with specific password-protected accounts and were reviewed remotely by four independent board-certified cytopathologists (checking round). Their reports were recorded and classified. After 12 and 24 months, the same representative digital images were transferred in random order to the same cytopathologists and were reviewed again (first and second review rounds, respectively). The cytopathologists' first and second round diagnoses were recorded and compared with their initial ones. Statistical evaluation of cytological diagnoses detected no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy among checking and review diagnoses. The overall interobserver agreement was almost perfect with κ values of 0.79-0.97, whereas intraobserver agreement ranged from almost perfect to perfect with κ values of 0.76-1 in all diagnostic rounds. Digital images of cervical smears can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis, by diminishing turnaround times and improving small cytology departments' quality indices. Diagnoses made by using static telecytological systems can be as reliable as those made by using conventional microscopy, under the conditions that representative images are taken and that standard cytological diagnostic criteria are applied. Telecytology can be used as an alternative method for the cytologic diagnosis of cervical smears, particularly in quality assurance programs.


Mermigkis C.,University of Crete | Mermigkis C.,401 General Army Hospital | Mermigkis C.,Henry Dunant Hospital | Bouloukaki I.,University of Crete | And 7 more authors.
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2013

Background: The recent literature shows an increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). On the other hand, there are no published studies related to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in this patient group. Our aim was to assess the effect of CPAP on sleep and overall life quality parameters in IPF patients with OSA and to recognize and overcome possible difficulties in CPAP initiation and acceptance by these patients. Methods: Twelve patients (ten males and two females, age 67.1 ± 7.2 years) with newly diagnosed IPF and moderate to severe OSA, confirmed by overnight attended polysomnography, were included. Therapy with CPAP was initiated after a formal in-lab CPAP titration study. The patients completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Functional Outcomes in Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at CPAP initiation and after 1, 3, and 6 months of effective CPAP therapy. Results: A statistically significant improvement was observed in the FOSQ at 1, 3, and 6 months after CPAP initiation (baseline 12.9 ± 2.9 vs. 14.7 ± 2.6 vs. 15.8 ± 2.1 vs. 16.9 ± 1.9, respectively, p = 0.02). Improvement, although not statistically significant, was noted in ESS score (9.2 ± 5.6 vs. 7.6 ± 4.9 vs. 7.5 ± 5.3 vs. 7.7 ± 5.2, p = 0.84), PSQI (10.7 ± 4.4 vs. 10.1 ± 4.3 vs. 9.4 ± 4.7 vs. 8.6 ± 5.2, p = 0.66), FSS (39.5 ± 10.2 vs. 34.8 ± 8.5 vs. 33.6 ± 10.7 vs. 33.4 ± 10.9, p = 0.44), SF-36 (63.2 ± 13.9 vs. 68.9 ± 13.5 vs. 72.1 ± 12.9 vs. 74.4 ± 11.3, p = 0.27), and BDI (12.9 ± 5.5 vs. 10.7 ± 4.3 vs. 9.4 ± 4.8 vs. 9.6 ± 4.5, p = 0.40). Two patients had difficulty complying with CPAP for a variety of reasons (nocturnal cough, claustrophobia, insomnia) and stopped CPAP use after the first month, despite intense follow-up by the CPAP clinic staff. Heated humidification was added for all patients in order to improve the common complaint of disabling nocturnal cough. Conclusion: Effective CPAP treatment in IPF patients with OSA results in a significant improvement in daily living activities based on the FOSQ, namely an OSA-specific follow-up instrument. Improvement was also noted in other questionnaires assessing quality of life, though not to a statistically significant degree, probably because of the multifactorial influences of IPF on physical and mental health. The probability of poor CPAP compliance was high and could only be eliminated with intense follow-up by the CPAP clinic staff. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Michaelidis M.,401 General Army Hospital | Koumantakis G.A.,401 General Army Hospital
Physical Therapy in Sport | Year: 2014

Background: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is frequently encountered in sports. Purpose: To analyze the effects of ACL injury prevention programs on injury rates in female athletes between different sports. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in September 2012 using Pubmed Central, Science Direct, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus. The key words used were: 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'ACL', 'knee joint', 'knee injuries', 'female', 'athletes', 'neuromuscular', 'training', 'prevention'. The inclusion criteria applied were: (1) ACL injury prevention training programs for female athletes; (2) Athlete-exposure data reporting; (3) Effect of training on ACL incidence rates for female athletes. Results: 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three training programs in soccer and one in handball led to reduced ACL injury incidence. In basketball no effective training intervention was found. In season training was more effective than preseason in ACL injury prevention. A combination of strength training, plyometrics, balance training, technique monitoring with feedback, produced the most favorable results. Conclusion: Comparing the main components of ACL injury prevention programs for female athletes, some sports-dependent training specificity issues may need addressing in future studies, related primarily to the individual biomechanics of each sport but also their most effective method of delivery. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mermigkis C.,University of Crete | Mermigkis C.,401 General Army Hospital | Mermigkis C.,Henry Dunant Hospital | Bouloukaki I.,University of Crete | And 6 more authors.
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2015

Study objectives: The most recent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) guidelines include obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among the IPF-associated comorbidities. Furthermore, they recognize the paucity of studies related to continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) treatment in this patient group and call for intensive research in this field. Our aim was to assess the effect of CPAP treatment on sleep and overall life quality parameters, morbidity, and mortality in IPF patients with OSA. Methods: Ninety-two treatment-naive, newly diagnosed, consecutive IPF patients underwent overnight-attended polysomnography (PSG). In those patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥15, therapy with CPAP was initiated. Patients were divided into poor and good CPAP compliance groups. All subjects completed multiple quality-of-life and sleep instruments before CPAP initiation and at 1 year after the start of CPAP treatment. Results: The good CPAP compliance group (37 patients) showed statistically significant improvement in all quality-of-life and sleep instruments after 1 year’s CPAP treatment. The poor CPAP compliance group (18 patients) showed significant changes of smaller strength only in a minority of the used instruments. During the 24-month follow-up period after CPAP initiation, three patients from the CPAP poor compliance group died, whereas all patients from the good CPAP compliance group remained alive. Conclusion: Early OSA recognition and treatment is crucial in a fatal disease such as IPF. Effective CPAP treatment in IPF patients with OSA results in a significant improvement in daily living activities and quality of sleep and life. Good CPAP compliance appears to improve mortality. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sakellaridis T.,401 General Army Hospital | Gaitanakis S.,401 General Army Hospital | Piyis A.,401 General Army Hospital
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective: A retrospective study of rib tumors was conducted to review their clinical, radiological, and pathological features, the difficulties in differentiating benign from malignant tumors, as well as the early and long-term results of surgical management. Methods: All patients with rib lesions evaluated by the Thoracic Surgery Department from 1998 to 2012 were studied. The patient's age, sex, symptoms, radiologic evaluation, surgical procedure, pathologic diagnosis and follow-up were assessed. Results: Ninety-one patients (81 male, 10 female, age range 16-80) with rib tumors underwent surgery in a period of 15 years (1998-2012). 64 patients (70.33 %) had benign lesions and 27 patients (29.67 %) had malignant tumors. In the group with malignant tumors, the main symptom was pain, and in the group with benign tumors the main symptom was swelling. Ten patients with benign rib tumor and two with malignant tumor were detected during routine chest radiograph. All patients were treated surgically with wide excision of the tumor and the diagnosis was established histologically. In the benign cohort, osteochondromas, fibrous dysplasia, enchondroma, eosinophilic granuloma and posttraumatic fibro-osseous lesion/dysplasia were among the most customary diagnoses. In the malignant cohort, 13 patients (48.15 %) had metastatic lesions, with the remaining 14 patients having primary malignant rib tumor. Conclusions: Although radiographic imaging has evolved, all rib lesions must be considered as potentially malignant until proven otherwise. Prompt intervention is necessary and surgery must consist of wide resection with tumor-free margins to provide the best chance for cure in both benign and malignant lesions. © 2014 The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery.


Mitsos A.P.,401 General Army Hospital
Endovascular Neurosurgery Through Clinical Cases | Year: 2015

Endovascular neurosurgery is a recently introduced but rapidly evolving medical field, which uses minimally invasive interventions to treat major life-threatening vascular lesions of the Central Nervous System. Although its history counts less than 15 years of worldwide acceptance, it has rapidly displaced the traditional open neurosurgical techniques, being nowadays the first treatment choice for brain aneurysms and vascular malformations. Thus, the experience of each neuroendovascular center and performer is invaluable, offering the base for learning and teaching the new generation of interventionalists as well as for the evolvement of the method itself. This book presents the basic principles of endovascular neurosurgery starting from clinical cases. Through this close-to-clinical-reality-process, the reader will be able to more thoroughly understand the pathophysiology of the brain and spine vascular lesions as well as the decision-making strategy, related to the indications, endovascular methods and results, finding suggestions and solutions to his/her clinical questions and problems. Besides chapters devoted to CNS vascular embryology and anatomy, clinical cases organized in groups based on the treated lesions are introduced: ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms of the anterior and posterior circulation, side-wall and bifurcation aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVM), dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF), arterial stenosis and angioplasty as well as spinal vascular lesions. A separate chapter is devoted to the organization and necessary equipment of the angio room and the department offering neuroendovascular service. This volume will be of interest to neurosurgeons, interventional neuroradiologists, vascular surgeons, neurologists and ICU physicians as well as health care providers who are involved in the diagnosis and management of the vascular lesions of the brain and spine. © Springer-Verlag Italia 2015.

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