Maplewood, MN, United States
Maplewood, MN, United States

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Yang S.-H.,Nichols Consulting Engineers Chtd. | Al-Qadi I.L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | McGraw J.,400 Gervais Avenue | Masson J.-F.,NRC Institute for Research in Construction | McGhee K.M.,Virginia Transportation Research Council
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

Hot-poured bituminous crack sealing has been widely accepted as a routine preventative maintenance practice. With proper installation, the sealing is expected to extend pavement service life by 3 to 5 years. However, current specifications for selection of crack sealants correlate poorly with field performance; hence, a set of new testing methods, based on sealant rheological and mechanical properties, was developed recently. Measurements of the mechanical properties of crack sealant at low temperatures are among the criteria introduced as part of the developed performance-based guidelines. The main purpose of this study was to identify and validate the low-temperature selection thresholds for the newly developed performance-based guidelines for selecting hot-poured bituminous crack sealants. In this study, selection criteria for crack sealant bending beam rheometer (CSBBR) and crack sealant direct tension tester (CSDTT) tests were identified. Two performance parameters for CSBBR test were used for the selection criteria: stiffness at 240 s and average creep rate (ACR). Both parameters were identified by comparing laboratory testing results with known sealant field performance, obtained from a long-term study in Canada. The selection criterion for the CSDTT test was extendibility, on the basis of field values reported in the literature. The recommended selection criteria were used to predict the field performance of 12 sealants evaluated by the National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP). Results showed good correlation between the proposed selection thresholds and NTPEP field sealant performance.


Budge A.S.,Minnesota State University, Mankato | Dasenbrock D.D.,400 Gervais Avenue | Mattison D.J.,400 Gervais Avenue
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2013

A proposed multi-span bridge was efficiently reduced to a single span in the design phase of a rural Minnesota project. Geotechnical analysis found it possible and significantly more cost effective to construct and monitor longer approach embankment fills over compressible clays as they deflected 300-450 mm (12-18 in) prior to roadway construction. The revised plan involved: removal of 3 m (10 ft) of compressible surface soils; construction of a reinforced load distribution platform; installation of earth pressure cells, piezometers, and ShapeAccelArray deformation sensors; soil preloading and surcharging; a near-real-time monitoring program to control construction sequencing, and a post-construction waiting period. Five cross sections were instrumented and the performance monitored through the construction period. The monitoring program was successfully able to evaluate increases in load, associated pore water pressure, and resulting deformation responses. High frequency data collection and reporting allowed project engineers to make informed decisions to restrict or accelerate construction. The program, while expensive, was highly cost effective considering reduced bridge construction and long-term maintenance costs. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Budge A.S.,University of Minnesota | Dasenbrock D.D.,400 Gervais Avenue | Mattison D.J.,400 Gervais Avenue
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2015

The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) has conducted several driven pile performance monitoring projects to investigate and assess the practical impact of the phenomenon of downdrag and the resulting dragload, often called "negative skin friction" on driven pile design and construction practice. While the current design guidance addressees downdrag and its associated dragload, there has been significant discussion by MnDOT personnel and the engineering community as to when negative skin friction can be expected, how to predict the magnitude of the dragload to be considered in design, and what scenarios, if any, exist when dragload may be safely ignored. This case history paper presents observations from five projects in Minnesota where driven piles were instrumented and monitored over periods of months to years, through construction and initial service, including lessons learned on those projects relative to the downdrag phenomenon. These projects have examined, among other things: the difference in behavior between standard pipe piles relative to Teflon-coated pipe piles; the impact of sleeves placed around stick-up lengths of piling in reducing dragload; the dragload distribution difference between subsurfaces composed of loose sands compared to soft clays; etc. While there is much to consider when dealing with negative skin friction and downdrag, a number of findings have allowed more knowledgeable decisions to be made, resulting in revisions to agency practice. Initial work proved that dragload existed, was measurable and permanent, and the behavior and observed magnitudes appeared consistent with predictions given geotechnical site conditions and structural loading. © ASCE 2015.


Budge A.S.,Minnesota State University, Mankato | Dasenbrock D.E.,400 Gervais Avenue
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2010

This project involved placing instrumentation on driven piles used on a bridge abutment in order to monitor downdrag effects due to negative skin friction. The overall scope included placing vibrating wire strain gages on a number of closed-end steel pipe piles and measuring the change in strain in the piles with time as consolidation occurred due to placement of backfill material after the pile driving process was completed. The instrumentation allowed the magnitude of downdrag forces to be monitored, providing field data as to the negative skin friction acting on the piles. It also provided the opportunity to compare the response of Teflon-coated piles versus uncoated piles. Having instrumentation on a variety of piles has provided a valuable collection of data that will offer better insights into the downdrag phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to share some lessons learned in the instrumentation process and to provide insights to others as additional research occurs in the future. © 2010 ASCE.


Izevbekhai B.I.,400 Gervais Avenue | Ig-Izevbekhai J.O.T.,Case Western Reserve University | Wong M.,400 Gervais Avenue
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2015

Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces nonrepresentative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. In response to this problem, a special texture study created a nontextured strip by a recession of the middle 4 ft of a texturing broom dragged longitudinally behind the paver. The study measured IRI and other surface properties in adjacent textured and nontextured strips by using a lightweight profiler outfitted with a line laser and a triple laser arranged in tandem. IRI measurements were performed after sufficient concrete strength gain and repeated as soon as the joints were sawn. The same measurements were repeated after the joints were deployed. Results showed a significant difference between the IRI of a textured strip and that of an nontextured strip. Further analysis indicated that, although texture appears to affect IRI, this effect was amplified by the type of laser used, as the triple laser appeared to indicate higher IRIs in comparison with the RoLine laser. Although the RoLine is not a reference profiler for IRI values unaffected by texture, the prevalence of the RoLine and the triple laser in construction acceptance testing is sufficient reason to be concerned about the difference inherent in the obtained results. Chi-square and t-test statistical analysis showed that laser type induced comparable and even higher IRI anomalies than did the experimental drag texture. In addition, the texture-induced IRI anomaly can be minimized by measuring smoothness for acceptance at least 2 weeks after paving.


Budge A.S.,Minnesota State University, Mankato | Dasenbrock D.D.,400 Gervais Avenue
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

A recent Minnesota Department of Transportation bridge project was outfitted with two in-place inclinometers and a series of strain gages on two driven piles to measure the change in strain, and associated stress, as consolidation settlement occurred in cohesive soils below newly placed bridge approach embankment fill. The magnitude of the downdrag acting on the piles, corrected for thermal effects, was monitored with respect to construction loading stages and nearby soil deflection. Downdrag loads of as much as 445 kN (50 tons) per pile were anticipated in the original design. Use of frequent data collection at this site, combined with the benefits of the construction sequencing - bridge loads were applied well after the construction and short-term surcharging of the embankment fill occurred - has offered additional insights into pile behavior in a downdrag environment. The paper discusses some aspects of the data collection and observed time-domain behavior of a selected gage location over a year-long observation period. A more comprehensive case history of this project, including overall pile behavior, and an investigation of the effects of the use of 'pile sleeves' and live load dynamic response is in development for future publication. © 2011 ASCE.


Izevbekhai B.I.,400 Gervais Avenue | Khazanovich L.,University of Minnesota
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2013

Functionality of concrete pavements can be restored through conventional diamond grinding (CDG) that improves ride quality and friction. Recently, an alternative diamond grinding configuration was proposed by the Institute for Safe Quiet and Durable Highway at Purdue University as part of a nationwide interest in quiet pavements. This paper discusses the field-testing of the CDG and alternative (innovative) diamond grinding as well as the pre-existing transverse tined (TT) texture at the MnROAD research facility. Acoustic properties, ride quality and friction performance of the diamond ground surfaces are compared to data obtained in the pre-existing TT surface. The initial performance of the innovative grind over a period of 3 years is also compared to that of the conventional grind and the TT surface. Test results, analysis, merits and demerits of the grinding types are also accentuated. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Johanneck L.,University of Minnesota | Tompkins D.,University of Minnesota | Clyne T.,400 Gervais Avenue | Khazanovich L.,University of Minnesota
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011

This paper describes research to evaluate modeling of the thermal behavior of concrete and composite pavements by the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM), the climate-modeling package used in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). First, the study uses temperature data collected at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) facility from portland cement concrete (PCC) and asphalt concrete (AC)-PCC pavements to investigate benefits of AC overlays on the thermal characteristics of PCC slabs. Furthermore, the study validates EICM predictions of thermal gradients through the slabs and investigates the effect of MEPDG-user inputs for thermal conductivity of PCC. Overall, the paper examines measured data from MnROAD for AC-PCC pavements and their single-layer PCC counter-parts and attempts to explain how similar pavement systems and their thermal characteristics are taken into account in the MEPDG. The paper concludes that evaluation of the material thermal inputs should be part of a process of local calibration and adaptation of the MEPDG.


Izevbekhai B.I.,400 Gervais Avenue | Voller V.R.,University of Minnesota
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2013

In pavement infrastructure, it is important to characterise the surfaces for an effective prediction of noise. One of the major influencing variables, texture orientation, also called spikiness, is a measure of how spiky the surface asperities are. Tyre-pavement interaction noise is associated with mechanisms triggered by micro-, macro-and megatexture. Of the variables within macro-texture range, texture spikiness has gained increased interest by providing explanations for scenarios with similar texture direction and mean profile depth on the same level of distress yet exhibiting very different noise levels. A tool created in this research, 'PARSER', facilitated computation of skewness/spikiness statistics. This paper therefore tenably quantifies texture spikiness by the method of skewness of amplitude distribution function. Consequently, a logical quantification of texture spikiness has facilitated a phenomenological noise prediction model. When properly quantified, texture spikiness is an indispensable tyre-pavement interaction variable. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Hoegh K.,University of Minnesota | Khazanovich L.,University of Minnesota | Dai S.,400 Gervais Avenue | Yu T.,U.S. Federal Highway Administration
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation | Year: 2015

Air void content is one of the most important characteristics of in-place asphalt concrete, substantially affecting early deterioration and long term performance. Destructive measures at limited locations, such as coring, are typically conducted as part of the air-void content evaluation after the pavement has been fully constructed. In this paper, use of an air coupled step-frequency array system for nondestructive assessment of air-void variability is explored. The dielectric properties of the asphalt were determined from the asphalt surface reflection amplitude of all 21 adjacent transmitting and receiving pairs of the array and related to air void content through plotting of dielectric changes with core measured air void content. This approach is an extension of the procedure developed for a single bistatic antenna pair determining properties within top millimeters of the asphalt surface. While cores provide information concerning bulk properties across the depth, the proposed method with an array system provides an opportunity for increased lateral coverage. The case study demonstrated good repeatability and correspondence with core measured air void content. The array-based method improves the coverage and productivity of the measurements, making it an attractive alternative to current state-of-the-practice procedures. © 2015 The Authors.

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