Ponnusankar S.,Jadavpur University |
Pandit S.,Jadavpur University |
Babu R.,Institutional Area |
Bandyopadhyay A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology |
Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011
Ethnopharmacological relevance: 'Triphala' is one of the age-old, most commonly used polyherbal preparation from Ayurveda as Rasayana drug. Aim of the study: This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes to assess its safety through its potential to interact with co-administered drugs. Materials and methods: The cytochrome P450 inhibitory effect of 'triphala' formulation was investigated on rat liver microsomes using CYP450-CO complex assay and on individual isoform such as CYP3A4 and 2D6 using fluorescence screening. RP-HPLC method was developed to standardize 'triphala' and its individual components using gallic acid as analytical marker compound. Results: RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of gallic acid (4.30 ± 2.09 mg/g) in the formulation. The formulation showed 23% inhibition of the rat liver microsomes through CYP450-CO complex assay which is comparatively less when compared with the individual components. Further, the effect of standardized formulation dissolved in ethanol showed CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activity at the IC50 values of 119.65 ± 1.91 μg/ml and 105.03 ± 0.98 μg/ml respectively. Gallic acid was also found to inhibit both the isoforms at the IC50 values of 87.24 ± 1.11 μg/ml and 92.03 ± 0.38 μg/ml respectively. Conclusions: Various concentrations of the formulation and its individual components showed significantly less inhibitory activity (p < 0.001) on individual isoforms when compared with the positive control. Assessment on the in vitro effect of 'triphala' on drug modulating enzymes has important implications for predicting the likelihood of herb-drug interactions if these are administered concomitantly. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahalakshmi R.,Institutional Area |
Eganathan P.,Institutional Area |
Parida A.K.,Institutional Area
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013
Objective: Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is native of Latin America origin and widely distributed throughout tropical and sub tropical regions. The present work was carried out to identify the chemical composition in the presence of various concentration of salicyclic acid by GC-MS analysis. Methods: In vitro callus was treated with 200, 300, 400, 500 μM of salicyclic acid in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium under in vitro condition. Ethyl acetate extract of control and treated callus was analysed for their chemical constituents using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: The major constituents obtained from control and salicylic acid treatments are 1-docosene, 1-octadecene, 1-hexadecene, (E)-3-eicosene, (E)-5-eicosene, 1-hexacene, nonahexacontaoic acid and methyl ester-3-oxocyclohexane carboxylic acid. Salicylic acid treatment altered the chemical content and increased percentage of compounds in all treatments, and also resulted in the production of higher percentage of alkanes and fatty acid. Conclusion: This study highlights production of secondary metabolites using salicylic acid elicitation. Hence, production of higher level of alkanes and fatty acids may be utilized for pharmaceutical uses.
Pandit S.,Jadavpur University |
Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University |
Ponnusankar S.,Jadavpur University |
Venkatesh M.,Jadavpur University |
Srikanth N.,Institutional Area
Fitoterapia | Year: 2011
The present study was aimed to investigate the possible interaction of the standardized extract of Acorus calamus (AC) with Cytochrome P450 enzyme, quantitative determination of the α-asarone in the AC rhizome was performed by RP-HPLC method. In vitro interaction of the plant extract was evaluated by CYP450-carbon monoxide complex (CYP450-CO) assay. Effect on individual isoforms such as CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes were analyzed through fluorescence product formation and respective IC50 values were determined. CYP450-CO assay showed moderate interaction potential. Extract showed higher IC50 values (46.84 ± 1.83-32.99 ± 2.21 μg/ml) comparing to the standard inhibitors and lower IC50 value than α-asarone (65.16 ± 2.37-42.15 ± 2.45 μg/ml). © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Estimating the effectiveness of a hospital’s interventions in India: Impact of the choice of disability weights [Évaluation de l’efficacité des interventions pratiquées dans un hôpital indien: Impact du choix des coefficients de pondération servant au calcul des années d’incapacité] [Estimación de la eficacia de las intervenciones de un hospital de la India: Impacto de la elección de los pesos de discapacidad]
Chatterjee S.,Institutional Area |
Gosselin R.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2015
Objective To calculate the effect of using two diferent sets of disability weights for estimates of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by interventions delivered in one hospital in India. Methods DALYs averted by surgical and non-surgical interventions were estimated for 3445 patients who were admitted to a 106-bed private hospital in a semi-urban area of northern India in 2012–2013. Disability weights were taken from global burden of disease (GBD) studies. We used the GBD 1990 disability weights and then repeated all of our calculations using the corresponding GBD 2010 weights. DALYs averted were estimated for surgical and non-surgical interventions using disability weight, risk of death and/or disability, and effectiveness of treatment. Findings The disability weights assigned in the GBD 1990 study to the sequelae of conditions such as cataract, cancer and injuries were substantially diferent to those assigned in the GBD 2010 study. These diferences in weights led to large diferences in estimates of DALYs averted. For all surgical interventions delivered to this patient cohort, 11 517 DALYs were averted if we used the GDB 1990 weights and 9401 DALYs were averted if we used the GDB 2010 disability weights. For non-surgical interventions 5168 DALYs were averted using the GDB 1990 disability weights and 5537 DALYS were averted using the GDB 2010 disability weights. Conclusion Estimates of the effectiveness of hospital interventions depend upon the disability weighting used. Researchers and resource allocators need to be very cautious when comparing results from studies that have used diferent sets of disability weights. © 2015, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.
Srivastava A.,Institutional Area |
Avan B.I.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Rajbangshi P.,Institutional Area |
Bhattacharyya S.,Institutional Area
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2015
Background: Developing countries account for 99 percent of maternal deaths annually. While increasing service availability and maintaining acceptable quality standards, it is important to assess maternal satisfaction with care in order to make it more responsive and culturally acceptable, ultimately leading to enhanced utilization and improved outcomes. At a time when global efforts to reduce maternal mortality have been stepped up, maternal satisfaction and its determinants also need to be addressed by developing country governments. This review seeks to identify determinants of women's satisfaction with maternity care in developing countries. Methods: The review followed the methodology of systematic reviews. Public health and social science databases were searched. English articles covering antenatal, intrapartum or postpartum care, for either home or institutional deliveries, reporting maternal satisfaction from developing countries (World Bank list) were included, with no year limit. Out of 154 shortlisted abstracts, 54 were included and 100 excluded. Studies were extracted onto structured formats and analyzed using the narrative synthesis approach. Results: Determinants of maternal satisfaction covered all dimensions of care across structure, process and outcome. Structural elements included good physical environment, cleanliness, and availability of adequate human resources, medicines and supplies. Process determinants included interpersonal behavior, privacy, promptness, cognitive care, perceived provider competency and emotional support. Outcome related determinants were health status of the mother and newborn. Access, cost, socio-economic status and reproductive history also influenced perceived maternal satisfaction. Process of care dominated the determinants of maternal satisfaction in developing countries. Interpersonal behavior was the most widely reported determinant, with the largest body of evidence generated around provider behavior in terms of courtesy and non-abuse. Other aspects of interpersonal behavior included therapeutic communication, staff confidence and competence and encouragement to laboring women. Conclusions: Quality improvement efforts in developing countries could focus on strengthening the process of care. Special attention is needed to improve interpersonal behavior, as evidence from the review points to the importance women attach to being treated respectfully, irrespective of socio-cultural or economic context. Further research on maternal satisfaction is required on home deliveries and relative strength of various determinants in influencing maternal satisfaction. © 2015 Srivastava et al.; licensee BioMed Central.
Kandwal R.,Institutional Area |
Bahl T.,Specializes in Health Issues
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2011
Stigma and discrimination have been "bed fellows" of HIV and AIDS in India. Perpetuated by lack of awareness, deep-rooted traditional beliefs, adherence to harmful practices, and a moralistic tag associated with a condition connected with sex (in India the method of HIV transmission being largely heterosexual in nature) and high-risk individuals such as sex workers, it made it difficult for the country to fight an epidemic that was hard to track, estimate, diagnose, and treat. Various interventions under India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) have targeted stigma and discrimination among different groups. The program has been fairly successful in its outreach programs, bringing about a reduction in adult HIV prevalence and new infections. As the country transitions from NACP Phase III (2007-2012) to IV (2012-2017), making treatment and longevity its top priority, stigma is no longer such a terrifying word. This review discusses the social and cultural context of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in general and highlights various policies and intervention programs that have led India's campaign against HIV/AIDS-driven stigma into the testing, care, support, and treatment ambit. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Swaminathan M.S.,Institutional Area
Resonance | Year: 2014
Swami Vivekananda, whose 150th birth anniversary is being celebrated this year, used to say, "This life is short; its vanities are transient. He alone lives who lives for others". Norman Borlaug was one such person, who lived and worked for the cause of ensuring food for all. As a scientist, he helped to breed outstanding varieties of dwarf wheat, which could help to triple the average yield. As a humanist, he placed faces before figures, and helped to highlight the fact that the persistence of hunger, in the midst of opportunities to increase food production through synergy between technology and public policy, is inexcusable. Dr Borlaug was not satisfied with scientific know-how alone. He wanted to convert scientific know-how into field level do - how. On the last day of his life, a scientist showed him a new equipment to trace soil fertility. Dr Borlaug's last words before his death were, "Take the tracer to the farmer". On the occasion of his birth centenary on March 25, 2014 we should all follow his advice and accelerate progress in linking the lab with land. His life and work will be eternal sources of inspiration and lead us to convert his vision of a hunger-free world into reality. Borlaug's Approach to Increasing Wheat Yield © 2014 Indian Academy of Sciences.
Basu S.,Institutional Area
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014
Satellite data is very important for model initialization and verification. A large number of satellite observations are currently assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). Apart from Global meteorological observations from GTS, near-real time satellite observations are received at NCMRWF from other operational centres like ISRO, NOAA/NESDIS, EUMETCAST, etc. Recently India has become member of Asia-Pacific Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service (APRARS) for faster access to high resolution global satellite data useful for high resolution regional models. Indian HRPT at Chennai covers the APRARS data gap region over South East Asia. A robust data monitoring system has been implemented at NCMRWF to assess the quantity and quality of the data as well as the satellite sensor strength, before getting assimilated in the models. Validation of new satellite observations, especially from Indian satellites are being carried out against insitu observations and similar space borne platforms. After establishing the quality of the data, Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are being conducted to study their impact in the assimilation and forecast systems. OSEs have been carried out with the Oceansat-2 scatterometer winds and radiance data from Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR sensor. Daily rainfall analysis dataset is being generated by merging satellite estimates and in-situ observations. ASCAT soil wetness measurements from METOP satellite is being assimilated into the global model. Land surface parameters (LuLc and albedo) retrieved from Indian satellites are being explored for its possible usage in the global and regional models. OLR from Indian satellites are used for validating model outputs. This paper reviews the efforts made at NCMRWF in (i) assimilating the data from Indian/International satellites and (ii) generating useful products from the satellite data. © 2014 SPIE.
Das Gupta M.,Institutional Area |
Rani S.I.,Institutional Area
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
Validation of Kalpana-1 atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) against upper air radiosonde (RS) winds and numerical model-derived winds (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting's (NCMRWF's) T382L64 first guess) during the monsoon season of 2011 was attempted in this study. This was the first attempt to compare Kalpana-1 AMVs with model-derived winds. An AMV validation against RS winds showed that the mean AMV speed is always higher than that of the mean RS speed, except in high-level cloud motion vectors (CMVs). In the southwest monsoon season of 2011, the maximum speed bias in Kalpana-1 AMV with respect to RS winds was observed in the middle level (~5 m s-1). The root mean square vector difference (RMSVD) of Kalpana-1 AMV with respect to the collocated RS winds (~5-7 m s-1) has been found to be in the same range as those of other geostationary satellites, especially over the northern hemisphere and the tropics. The validation of Kalpana-1 AMVs against first guess revealed more erroneous low-level and middle-level AMVs, but the vector difference in the high-level winds was found to be smaller than the same in the low- and middle-level winds. The uncertainty in the empirical genetic algorithm (GA) used to derive the Kalpana-1 AMVs, which does not use model background fields, may be the reason for the high RMSVD of Kalpana-1 AMVs with respect to RS winds and high bias with respect to first guess. The mean observed AMV clearly depicted monsoonal features such as low-level westerly jet (LLWJ) and tropical easterly jet (TEJ). The speed bias density plots of Kalpana-1 high-level CMVs (400-100 hPa) and water vapour channel winds (WVWs) (above ~500 hPa) with respect to first guess showed that the bias was higher for WVWs; however, the standard deviations of high-level CMVs and WVWs are comparable. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Narayan J.,Institutional Area
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2010
This article concerns the 20th century saga of Ayurvedic Education up to the current situation, based on a general appreciation of knowledge in Ayurveda. In this light, it considers how to improve quality of teaching and teachers. This is most important, because in education, teachers are the custodians of tradition and knowledge. As those most responsible for maintaining or restoring quality, teachers have very important roles to play. The article also treats 'learning and teaching': who should learn Ayurveda, and how to teach Ayurveda so that it continues from generation to generation, leading to the final area of onsideration, reforms in teaching Ayurveda, and future prospects.