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Medford, MA, United States

Prostate cancer most commonly presents as initially castration dependent, however in a minority of patients the disease will progress to a state of castration resistance. Here, approaches for correlating alterations in the phosphoproteome with androgen independent cell survival in the LNCaP, PC3, and MDa-PCa-2b cell lines are discussed. The performance of the regression techniques multiple linear, ridge, principal component, and partial least squares regression is compared. The predictive performance of these algorithms over randomized data sets and using the Akaike Information Criterion is explored, and principal component and partial least squares regression are found to outperform other regression approaches. The effect of altering the number of features versus observations on the R2 value and predictive performance is also examined using the partial least squares regression model. Utilizing these approaches "drivers" of castration resistant disease can be identified whose modulation alters phenotypic outcomes. These data provide an empirical comparison of the various considerations when statistically analyzing phosphorylation data with the aim of correlating with phenotypic outcomes. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Hayden R.S.,4 Colby St. | Fortin J.-P.,800 Washington Street | Harwood B.,800 Washington Street | Subramanian B.,4 Colby St. | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials

The goals of the present study are to establish an in vitro co-culture model of osteoblast and osteoclast function and to quantify the resulting bone remodeling. The bone is tissue engineered using well-defined silk protein biomaterials in 2D and 3D formats in combination with human cells. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are selected because of their roles in bone remodeling for expression in tethered format on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cell-modified biomaterial surfaces are reconstructed from scanning electron microscopy images into 3D models for quantitative measurement of surface characteristics. Increased calcium deposition and surface roughness are found in 3D surface models of silk protein films remodeled by co-cultures containing tethered PTH, and decreased surface roughness is found for the films remodeled by tethered GIP co-cultures. Increased surface roughness is not found in monocultures of hMSCs expressing tethered PTH, suggesting that osteoclast-osteoblast interactions in the presence of PTH signaling are responsible for the increased mineralization. These data point towards the design of in vitro bone models in which osteoblast-osteoclast interactions are mimicked for a better understanding of bone remodeling. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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