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Frenzel K.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Lehmann J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Kruger D.H.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Martin-Parras L.,4 Antibody AG | And 2 more authors.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2014

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific hyperimmunoglobulin (CMV-HIG) is used to treat and prevent CMV infection in immunocompromised patients, and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody is successfully used in the treatment for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Two immunological approaches have been suggested to further improve the control of viral reproduction in patients with active disease: first, the use of monoclonal antibodies with specificity against viral epitopes and second, coadministration of cells with the capacity to promote antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here, we have evaluated the effectiveness of these strategies in vitro (alone and in combination) with neutralization and cytotoxicity assays. Our results indicate that monoclonal antibodies (in particular SM5-1) can be as effective as CMV-HIG in neutralizing-cell-free CMV. Moreover, our data indicate that antibody-mediated elimination (either by moAb or by HIG) of EBV-infected cells can be significantly enhanced by NK cells. Using human NK cells that have been purified, cultured and expanded under GMP conditions, we were able to demonstrate that the combination of NK cells and antibodies could represent a feasible and highly effective clinical approach to achieve control of EBV infections. Especially in leukopenic patients with low numbers of ADCC-promoting cells, the combination of adoptively transferred NK cells and antiviral antibodies offers a promising strategy that should be tested in clinical trials. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Buetler T.M.,Nestle | Buetler T.M.,University of Zurich | Latado H.,Nestle | Leclerc E.,North Dakota State University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are suspected to stimulate inflammatory signaling pathways in target tissues via activation of the receptor for AGEs. Endotoxins are generally recognized as potential contamination of AGE preparations and stimulate biological actions that are very similar as or identical to those induced by AGEs. Methods and results: In our study, we used glycolaldehyde-modified β-lactoglobulin preparations as model AGEs and employed two methods to remove endotoxin using either affinity columns or extraction with Triton X-114 (TX-114). Affinity column-purified AGEs retained their ability to stimulate inflammatory signaling as measured by mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the human lung epithelial cell line Beas2b. However, glycolaldehyde-modified AGEs purified by extraction with TX-114 did not show any stimulation of mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines. The presence of a cell stimulating endotoxin-like activity was demonstrated in the detergent phase after extraction with TX-114, thus indicating that not AGEs but a lipophilic contamination was responsible for the stimulation of inflammatory signaling. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that glycolaldehyde-modified AGEs are unable to induce inflammatory signaling in receptor for AGE-expressing cells. The observed cell-activating activity can be ascribed to an endotoxin-like lipophilic contamination present in AGE preparations and affinity column purification was insufficient to remove this contamination. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Ruff A.J.,RWTH Aachen | Dennig A.,RWTH Aachen | Wirtz G.,RWTH Aachen | Blanusa M.,Jacobs University Bremen | And 2 more authors.
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2012

Flow cytometry-based screening systems have successfully been used in directed evolution experiments. Herein, we report the first whole-cell, high-throughput screening platform for P450 monooxygenases based on flow cytometry. O-dealkylation of 7-benzoxy-3-carboxycoumarin ethyl ester (BCCE) by P450 BM3 generates a fluorescence coumarin derivative. After one round of directed evolution, P450 BM3 variants with up to 7-fold increased activity (P450 M3 DM-1: R255H) could be identified at a sampling rate of 500 events s -1. The reported screening platform can likely be applied to directed evolution campaigns of any P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes the O-dealkylation of BCCE. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Patent
4 Antibody Ag | Date: 2011-09-29

The present invention discloses novel methods for the generation, expression and screening of diverse collections of binding proteins such as antibodies or fragments thereof in vertebrate host cells in vitro, for the identification and isolation of ligand- or antigen-specific binding proteins. The methods disclosed herein allow the expression of diverse collections of binding proteins from at least one vector construct, which optionally can give rise to collections of diverse binding proteins upon transfer and expression into vertebrate host cells in situ.


Patent
4 Antibody AG | Date: 2014-04-15

The present invention discloses novel methods for the generation, expression and screening of diverse collections of binding proteins such as antibodies or fragments thereof in vertebrate host cells in vitro, for the identification and isolation of ligand- or antigen-specific binding proteins. The methods disclosed herein allow the expression of diverse collections of binding proteins from at least one vector construct, which optionally can give rise to collections of diverse binding proteins upon transfer and expression into vertebrate host cells in situ.

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