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3M
Saint Paul, MN, United States

The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in St. Paul, Minnesota. 3M headquarters are in the St. Paul suburb of Maplewood, Minnesota.With $30 billion in sales, 3M employs 88,000 people worldwide and produces more than 55,000 products, including: adhesives, abrasives, laminates, passive fire protection, dental and orthodontic products, electronic materials, medical products, car-care products , electronic circuits, and optical films. 3M has operations in more than 65 countries including 29 international companies with manufacturing operations and 35 companies with laboratories. 3M products are available for purchase through distributors and retailers in more than 200 countries, and online directly from the company. Wikipedia.


This tutorial reviews the key aspects and literature to date around the nanostructured thin film (NSTF) electrocatalyst technology platform for PEM fuel cells and electrolyzers. The NSTF technology is to date the only practical example of an extended surface area catalyst shown to effectively address several of the performance, cost and durability barriers facing cathode and anode catalysts for fuel cell vehicles. The unique physical characteristics of these ultra-thin, low Pt-loaded electrodes also require alternative solutions for water management and impurity tolerance. We present an overview of the NSTF electrocatalysts' four primary differentiating features, to show how their material and basic geometric and material characteristics translate to functional performance factors. We conclude by briefly recounting the historical origins of the NSTF material with the recommendation that the field of ordered organic molecular solids represents a large opportunity for developing tailored support materials for heterogeneous catalysis. ©The Electrochemical Society. Source


Obrovac M.N.,Dalhousie University | Chevrier V.L.,3M
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Most studies set out to make materials that improve on the specific capacity of graphite, usually without regard to average voltage, volumetric capacity, or the many other properties listed above that are more applicable to implementation in practical cells. One difficulty in choosing proper metrics for anodes stems from basic electrochemistry: it is not possible to calculate the energy of a single electrode. To provide motivation for using alloy anode materials and a framework for comparison, key performance metrics need to be defined. It is well-known that the volumetric and specific capacities of the active elements are far greater than that of graphite. Because all alloys expand considerably during lithiation, this volume must be accommodated somewhere within a battery. To make more informative performance comparisons, it is necessary to use a cell model, preferably one that is most representative of alloy materials application. Source


This tutorial reviews the key aspects and literature to date around the nanostructured thin film (NSTF) electrocatalyst technology platform for PEM fuel cells and electrolyzers. The NSTF technology is to date the only practical example of an extended surface area catalyst shown to effectively address several of the performance, cost and durability barriers facing cathode and anode catalysts for fuel cell vehicles. The unique physical characteristics of these ultra-thin, low Pt-loaded electrodes also require alternative solutions for water management and impurity tolerance. We present an overview of the NSTF electrocatalysts' four primary differentiating features, to show how their material and basic geometric and material characteristics translate to functional performance factors.We conclude by briefly recounting the historical origins of the NSTF material with the recommendation that the field of ordered organic molecular solids represents a large opportunity for developing tailored support materials for heterogeneous catalysis. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. Source


This disclosure describes techniques for creating and manipulating software notes representative of physical notes. For example, techniques are described for recognizing physical notes present within a physical environment, capturing information therefrom and creating corresponding digital representations of the physical notes, referred to herein as digital notes or software-based notes. At least some aspects of the present disclosure feature system and methods for note recognition using color classification. The system receives a visual representation of a scene having one or more notes, where each note has a color. The system generates indicators indicative of color classes of pixels in the visual representation. The system further determines a general boundary of one of the notes based on the indicators.


A structure comprising at least one inorganic layer comprising inorganic materials suitable for use in a pollution control device. A friction-inducing material is disposed on at least one side of the inorganic layer. The deposited friction-inducing material defines a higher friction area exhibiting a static coefficient of friction higher than that of the inorganic materials. A lower friction layer is disposed so as to cover at least a portion of the higher friction area and define an exposed surface area of the structure. The exposed surface area exhibits a lower static coefficient of friction than that of the higher friction area. The lower friction layer no longer covers a substantial portion of the higher friction area, after the pollution control device is assembled.

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