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Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2013

The artist Pavel Nikolayevich Mikhailov (1786–1840) took part in the Antarctic expedition of the Imperial Russian Navy commanded by Captain F.F. Bellingshausen from 1819 to 1821. The author was invited to view the collection of Mikhailov's work, from two expeditions, that is held at the Russian Museum, St Petersburg. The Bellingshausen pieces in the collection are described, and their relationships to the smaller collection of Mikhailov's work for the Bellingshausen expedition, held at the State Historical Museum in Moscow, to the lithographs in the Atlas volume of Bellingshausen's published narrative, and to the various versions of Mikhailov's images that have been published in the 20th and 21st centuries, are discussed. © 2011, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2013

In 1949 a reassessment of the Imperial Russian Navy's Antarctic expedition of 1819-1821 was promulgated in the Soviet Union. The contention was that Russian seamen had made the first discovery of the mainland of Antarctica, two or three days before the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula was sighted by a British expedition, under William Smith and Edward Bransfield, sent to take formal possession of the South Shetland Islands. The new Soviet line apparently required that an important passage in a report which Captain Bellingshausen had sent from Australia in 1820 should, as far as possible, be overlooked or downplayed. Nineteenth century editions of the report and its covering letter are translated, the contemporary ice vocabulary in which they were phrased is explained, and the practice of discounting parts of them in the past and continuing to ignore those passages today is discussed. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2011

On 7 December 1945 a captured German whaling factory, Wikinger, was allocated to the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Agreement between that country, the United States and the United Kingdom. In the first section, this article presents the first detailed account of how Wikinger was seized by the Royal Navy and eventually transferred to Soviet ownership. The second section illustrates the hostile attitudes of western governments towards the Slava whaling flotilla during the cold war, and the degree to which their suspicions were focused on the work of scientists assigned to the flotilla. The next four sections trace the fluctuating perceptions and presentations, during the Tsarist and early Soviet periods, of the Imperial Russian Navy's Antarctic expedition of 1819-1821, the problems in respect of Antarctica which confronted Soviet diplomacy and propaganda in the 1940s, and the new story, about Russians having been the first people to discover Antarctica, which was developed in order to address them. It is then possible, in the seventh section, to explain the political utility of the Slava flotilla in the early 1950s. An eighth section sketches the divergent cultural fortunes of the Bellingshausen expedition and the Slava flotilla after the period under consideration. This article discusses the use of whaling and history in support of Soviet Antarctic policy between the end of World War 2 and the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-1958. But the Slava whaling flotilla did not just play a part in the historicisation of Soviet Antarctic policy. It was itself a historically constituted object, fraught with meanings on both sides of the cold war. For that reason the opportunity is taken to give a more detailed account of the flotilla's origins than has been available hitherto. The author notes that two contributors to this journal have preceded him in some of these matters (Armstrong 1950, 1971; Gan 2009). He ventures to suggest, however, that the connections between whaling, historiography and public information management in Soviet Antarctic policy have not been fully demonstrated before this. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2011

In 1860 and 1861 Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury USN, (1806-1873), put forward the first ever proposal for international cooperation in polar research. Maury's initiative also prompted the first ever international correspondence about polar cooperation, fourteen years before Carl Weyprecht launched his better known proposal. For several reasons however, including the outbreak of the American Civil War, Maury's Antarctic project did not succeed. Maury's proposal was published in three languages, but the better known of its two English versions was prepared from text that had already been copied once or twice by hand. It suffered numerous minor errors and extensive editorial changes. To mark its 150th anniversary, Maury's autograph manuscript, now in the British National Archives, has been transcribed as accurately as possible, with his original wording, spellings and (lack of) punctuation. A commentary explains the origins and outcome of the project. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2015

The celebrated meeting between Captain Bellingshausen of the Imperial Russian Navy and the American sealing skipper Nathaniel Brown Palmer, off the South Shetland Islands in February 1821, has often been described by following just one or other of the two men's divergent and in some respects irreconcilable accounts. The most contentious issue is whether or not Palmer told Bellingshausen about the existence of a body of land to the south of the South Shetlands, known today as the Antarctic Peninsula. This note attempts to reach a balanced assessment of the matter by examining evidence from both sides, including several previously unconsidered items. It concludes that, although the truth will never be known with absolute certainty, the basic American account is more plausible, by the narrowest of narrow margins, than the Russian. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2016

In a recent interesting contribution to this journal, G.A. Mawer suggested that Antarctica was first so named in 1890 (Mawer 2008). New evidence however reveals that Antarctica first received its modern one-word name as early as 1840 at a congress of Italian scientists. The new name was soon adapted for other languages, and its use in English can be traced from 1849. A hypothesis is advanced as to why alternative French and German names were coined later in the century. The first map to use the new place name was published in 1843, and the first map to show a complete outline of the continent, estimated from expedition reports, was produced in 1844. But nothing could become the settled name of the south polar continent until its existence was confirmed at the turn of the twentieth century. © 2015 Cambridge University Press.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2015

The Armenian-Russian artist Ivan Aivazovsky completed a painting of a polar seascape entitled Ledyanyye gory [Ice mountains] in 1870. The picture has usually been taken for an Antarctic scene depicting HIMS Mirnyi, one of the two ships of the Russian Antarctic Expedition of 1819-1821, in the presence of icebergs, ice cliffs and floes. The author contends, first, that this identification is open to considerable doubt, and second, that other aspects of the painting are also problematic. The painting is in the Aivazovsky Museum in Ukraine. The Museum kindly supplied him with high resolution photographs of the painting but personal scrutiny has proved impossible hitherto. Further research, especially into Aivazovsky's papers, might resolve some of the questions which it raises. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2011

Frank Debenham believed, on naval authority, that the first English translation of Bellingshausen's account of his 1819-1821 voyage was made during World War I (Debenham 1945: vii). He may have been misinformed. © Copyright 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2012

Pavel Sergeyevich Rozhkov was captain of the whale catcher Slava 3 on the first Soviet whaling cruise in the Antarctic, which took place in 1946-1947. He wrote an exceptionally frank and detailed account of the cruise, for those times, which was published in a Lithuanian newspaper and is now presented here for the first time in English translation. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Bulkeley R.,38 Lonsdale Road
Polar Record | Year: 2015

The pair of paperweights illustrated on the front cover of this issue of Polar Record and reproduced as Fig. 1 were made in 1889 at the Burslem pottery of James Macintyre & Co. (best known for employing William Moorcroft a few years later) using maps engraved by the Edinburgh firm of J.G. Bartholomew (JGB). Macintyre produced other paperweights with Bartholomew maps of Central Africa, India, British South Africa and the rarest, Australasia, to a pottery design 9.9cm in diameter, weight 333gm, registered as No.141265. The correspondence shows that the hemispheres came first, and were intended to feature the British Empire worldwide, although that political appellation does not appear. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015

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