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Agung E.H.,3400 UPM Serdang | Agung E.H.,Malahayati University | Sapuan S.M.,3400 UPM Serdang | Hamdan M.M.,National Defence University of Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal behaviour of abaca fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites. Thermal analysis is based upon the detection of changes in the heat content (enthalpy) and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of optimum condition of abaca fibre reinforced HIPS composites. in this research, glass transitions temperature (Tg) of neat HIPS occurred below the Tg of optimum condition of composites as the temperature of an amorphous state. The endothermic peak of composites was in to range 430-435°C including neat HIPS and it observed that enthalpy of abaca fibre reinforced HIPS composites yielded below the neat HIPS 748.79 J/g. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.

Agung E.H.,3400 UPM Serdang | Sapuan S.M.,3400 UPM Serdang | Hamdan M.M.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Zaman H.M.D.K.,Malaysian Nuclear Agency | Mustofa U.,Malahayati University
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2011

In this paper, the hardness property of abaca (Musa textile Nee) fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites with maelic anhydride (MAH) used as coupling agent and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) copolymer rubber (Cyclo resin) used as impact modifier was investigated using response surface methodology.. The composites were initially fabricated using a rolling machine and finally using a hot press machine to obtain a desired thickness. These samples were then tested for Brinell hardness test. A statistical approach of response surface methodology was used to obtain the interaction between various compositions mentioned above for abaca fibre reinforced HIPS composites. The BHN (Brinell hardness number) was analyzed using response surface methodology (Box Behnken method). © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.

Azmirruddin M.,Advanced Materials Research Center | Johari N.,Advanced Materials Research Center | Jabir M.,Advanced Materials Research Center | Ibrahim R.,Advanced Materials Research Center | Talib A.R.A.,3400 UPM Serdang
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

In PIM process, the molding stage is a critical step for the fabrication of sound parts without cracks and distortions. So, this step requires specific rheological behavior. Rheological analysis can be made to quantify the stability of the PIM feedstock during molding process. In this study, an experimental rheological study has been performed to evaluate the influence of palm stearin on the rheological behavior and stability of Inconel 718 powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock. The effects of shear rate and temperature were investigated via capillary rheometer method. The viscosity and shear rate of the feedstock were measured at various range of temperature and shear rate across the L/D = 1 capillary rheometer. The results show that the formulation binder system PSPE 7030 is the best feedstock to be injection molded because it has moderate value of flow sensitivity index, lower value for flow activation energy and higher value for mold ability index. Besides that, the increasing of PS content in the binder system has found reduce viscosity and value of flow activation energy and increase value of mold ability index of feedstock. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Mohamad A.,3400 UPM Serdang | Azlan A.,3400 UPM Serdang | Azlan A.,University Putra Malaysia | Razman M.R.,National University of Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Fish is a good source of high-quality protein, vitamins and other essential nutrients, especially essential fatty acids (EFAs), known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nutritionists have suggested an intake of 35g or more of fish daily and two fatty fish-meals per week as to reduce the relative risk of death from coronary heart diseases. However, fish consumption also has been identified as one of the primary route of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study has identified the type and level of 12 congeners of PCBs that are the most toxic to humans. The maximum permitted level of PCBs is 4 pg/g for muscles meat of fish and fishery products by World Health Organization (WHO) using 2005 WHO-TEFs. The highest amount of PCBs concentration was in Anadara granosa (cockles) with level of 2.61pg/g wet weight. Other species such as Psettodes erumei (large-scale tongue sole), Plotosus spp. (gray eel-catfish), Sepia officinalis (cuttle fish), and Macrobrachium rosenbergi (prawn) contained relatively low concentration of PCBs in their tissue collected from West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Therefore, it can be concluded that these demersal fish and shellfish are safe to consume.

Nair G.,University Malaysia Perlis | Shafawi M.,University Malaysia Perlis | Irwanto M.,University Malaysia Perlis | Yusoff M.I.,University Malaysia Perlis | And 2 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This project is to investigate the counter electrode material from two different carbon sources to fabricate dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The carbon sources are extracted from battery and pencil lead. The method to prepare the DSSC is through the conventional Dr.Blading method. The same method is also used for the counter electrode which uses carbon from recycle batteries, the carbon from pencil lead are scribbled onto the ITO glass to get a uniform coating. Both thickness of the counter electrode vary accordingly. The solar cells are then placed under outdoor solar irradiation and the output is taken every 10 minutes. Based on observation, the solar cells which have the carbon from batteries shows higher cell efficiency which is 8.2% with lower FF of 0.78, compared to by using the pencil lead, the cell efficiency is only 7.23% but with a higher FF of 0.93. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Soleimani A.F.,3400 UPM Serdang | Zulkifli I.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Omar A.R.,3400 UPM Serdang | Raha A.R.,University Putra Malaysia
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Domestic animals have been modified by selecting individuals exhibiting desirable traits and culling the others. To investigate the alterations introduced by domestication and selective breeding in heat stress response, 2 experiments were conducted using Red Jungle Fowl (RJF), village fowl (VF), and commercial broilers (CB). In experiment 1, RJF, VF, and CB of a common chronological age (30 d old) were exposed to 36 ± 1°C for 3 h. In experiment 2, RJF, VF, and CB of common BW (930 ± 15 g) were subjected to similar procedures as in experiment 1. Heat treatment significantly increased body temperature, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and plasma corticosterone concentration in CB but not in VF and RJF. In both experiments and irrespective of stage of heat treatment, RJF showed lower heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, higher plasma corticosterone concentration, and higher heat shock protein 70 expression than VF and CB. It can be concluded that selective breeding for phenotypic traits in the domestication process has resulted in alterations in the physiology of CB and concomitantly the ability to withstand high ambient temperature compared with RJF and VF. In other words, domestication and selective breeding are leading to individuals that are more susceptible to stress rather than resistant. It is also apparent that genetic differences in body size and age per se may not determine breed or strain variations in response to heat stress. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Soleimani A.F.,3400 UPM Serdang | Zulkifli I.,Institute of Tropical Agriculture | Omar A.R.,3400 UPM Serdang | Raha A.R.,University Putra Malaysia
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

This study aimed to determine the effect of neonatal feed restriction on plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression in aged male Japanese quail subjected to acute heat stress. Equal numbers of chicks were subjected to either ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). At 21 (young) and 270 (aged) d of age, birds were exposed to 43 ± 1°C for 1 h. Blood and hippocampus samples were collected to determine CORT and Hsp 70 and GR expressions before heat stress and following 1 h of heat stress, 1 h of post-heat stress recovery, and 2 h of post-heat stress recovery. With the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, we examined the hippocampal expression of GR and Hsp 70 and CORT. The GR expression of the young birds increased following heat stress and remained consistent throughout the period of recovery. Conversely, no significant changes were noted on GR expression of aged birds. Although both young and aged birds had similar CORT before and during heat stress, the latter exhibited greater values following 1 and 2 h of recovery. Within the young group, feeding regimens had no significant effect on Hsp 70 expression. However, neonatal feed restriction improved Hsp 70 expression in aged birds. Neonatal feed restriction, compared with the AL group, resulted in higher CORT on d 21 but the converse was noted on d 270. Neonatal feed restriction appears to set a robust reactive hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal response allowing the development of adaptive, healthy, and resilient phenotypes in aged quail as measured by a higher hippocampal Hsp 70 expression along with lower CORT. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Rajabi M.,3400 UPM Serdang | Aris T.N.M.,3400 UPM Serdang | Sulaiman N.,3400 UPM Serdang
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2013

The application of problem solving methods is seemed to be difficult for novice students in computer programming field. Hence, majority of them prefer to go straight to the last stage to collect information by analyzing source code. Indeed, introducing an efficient solution for this problem will help them to figure out programming problems properly as well as saving time. Nevertheless, computational problem solving systems are not as applicable as enough to be contributed to complex problems craving intelligent analysis. So, intelligent agents tie with problem solving methods to conquer the mentioned issue. Here, a new system mapped by prometheus design tool (PDT) has been introduced. Likewise, the textualized problem to be given to the system and then problem analysis chart (PAC), input process output (IPO) chart, flowchart and algorithm will be produced. The designed problem solving system in this work comprises five agents, namely GUI, PAC, IPO, flowchart and algorithm agents interacting with the environment by percepts and actions. Additionally, there exists extraction, transformation and module number generation processes covering with three scenarios: 'Extract Scenario, 'Transform Scenario' and 'Generate Module Number Scenario'. The system specification, the architectural design and the detailed design are produced based on the analysis overview diagram and the scenario diagram. © 2005 - 2013 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.

Chin C.Y.,University of Malaya | Chin C.Y.,Curtin University Australia | Mooi C.S.,3400 UPM Serdang
Life Science Journal | Year: 2012

Little is known about the accuracy of serum creatinine (SCr) in identifying early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the primary care setting. Thus, this study aims to examine the concordance of SCr to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in detecting early CKD. This is part of a randomly selected 10-year retrospective, observation cohort study of patients registered with the Department of Primary Care Medicine Clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre. A SCr ≥ 132μmol/L and eGFR < 60 ml/min are used as the cut-off points for impaired renal function. Kappa statistic is used to test the inter-rater agreement of SCr with eGFR. A total of 1100 subjects were recruited. The mean age, SCr and eGFR were 66±9 years, 86±42 μmol/L and 70±30 ml/min respectively. The concordance between SCr and eGFR was poor as 363 (35.5%) patients had normal SCr but abnormal eGFR. Kappa value was 0.022 (p<0.001). Screening for CKD using SCr fails to detect an additional third of patients with impaired renal functions. Hence using eGFR is a better way to identify early CKD.

PubMed | 3400 UPM Serdang
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaysian journal of nutrition | Year: 2012

This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme system following crude hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) in acute paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Hydroethanolic extract (80%) of MO (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg; p.o) was pre-administered before a single oral dose of 3 g/kg PCM intoxication to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pre-treatment of the extract was found to have reduced lipid peroxidation level when compared to the group treated with PCM only. The level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was restored to near normal in groups that were pre-treated with MO. Histopathological studies have further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MO compared to group treated with PCM only. The results obtained were comparable to silymarin (200 mg/kg; p.o). The MO extract was found to have significantly protected the liver against toxicity following PCM intoxication by enhancing the level of antioxidant enzyme activity.

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