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Eberth J.M.,University of South Carolina | Qiu R.,University of South Carolina | Adams S.A.,University of South Carolina | Salloum R.G.,University of South Carolina | And 4 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

Objectives: Although the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) lauds the efficacy of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) at reducing lung cancer mortality, it has not been widely used for population-based screening. By examining the availability of U.S. LDCT screening centers, and underlying rates of lung cancer incidence, mortality, and smoking prevalence, the need for additional centers may be determined. Materials and methods: Locations of 203 LDCT screening centers from the Lung Cancer Alliance Screening Centers of Excellence database, a list of active NLST and International Early Lung and Cardiac Action Program (I-ELCAP) screening centers, and an independently conducted survey of Society of Thoracic Radiology members were geocoded and mapped. County-level rates of lung cancer incidence, mortality, and smoking prevalence were also mapped and overlaid with the locations of the 203 LDCT screening centers. Results and conclusions: Results showed the majority of LDCT screening centers were located in the counties with the highest quartiles of lung cancer incidence and mortality in the Northeast and East North Central states, but several high-risk states had no or few identified screening centers including Oklahoma, Nevada, Mississippi, and Arkansas. As guidelines are implemented and reimbursement for LDCT screening follows, equitable access to LDCT screening centers will become increasingly important, particularly in regions with high rates of lung cancer incidence and smoking prevalence. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Bowick G.C.,Institute for Human Infections and Immunity | Bowick G.C.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Airo A.M.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Bente D.A.,Institute for Human Infections and Immunity | And 2 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne hemorrhagic zoonosis associated with high mortality. Pathogenesis studies and the development of vaccines and antivirals against CCHF have been severely hampered by the lack of suitable animal model. We recently developed and characterized a mature mouse model for CCHF using mice carrying STAT1 knockout (KO). Findings. Given the importance of interferons in controlling viral infections, we investigated the expression of interferon pathway-associated genes in KO and wild-type (WT) mice challenged with CCHF virus. We expected that the absence of the STAT1 protein would result in minimal expression of IFN-related genes. Surprisingly, the KO mice showed high levels of IFN-stimulated gene expression, beginning on day 2 post-infection, while in WT mice challenged with virus the same genes were expressed at similar levels on day 1. Conclusions: We conclude that CCHF virus induces similar type I IFN responses in STAT1 KO and WT mice, but the delayed response in the KO mice permits rapid viral dissemination and fatal illness. © 2012 Bowick et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Panchbhavi V.K.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Panchbhavi V.K.,301 University Boulevard
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma | Year: 2012

The reduction and stabilization of diastases between the medial cuneiform and the base of second metatarsal after a Lisfranc ligament injury is a crucial objective in the open reduction and internal fixation of these injuries. To achieve this objective, a single screw is used. The present practice is to insert the screw directed from the medial cuneiform bone into the base of the second metatarsal. This technique trick describes an easier method of insertion of the screw and one that possibly provides a better fixation. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Iwanaszko M.,Silesian University of Technology | Brasier A.R.,301 University Boulevard | Kimmel M.,Silesian University of Technology | Kimmel M.,Rice University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: The NF-κB family plays a prominent role in the innate immune response, cell cycle activation or cell apoptosis. Upon stimulation by pathogen-associated patterns, such as viral RNA a kinase cascade is activated, which strips the NF-κB of its inhibitor IκBα molecule and allows it to translocate into the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, it activates transcription of approximately 90 genes whose kinetics of expression differ relative to when NF-κB translocates into the nucleus, referred to as Early, Middle and Late genes. It is not obvious what mechanism is responsible for segregation of the genes' timing of transcriptional response.Results: It is likely that the differences in timing are due, in part, to the number and type of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), required for NF-κB itself as well as for the putative cofactors, in the Early versus Late genes. We therefore applied an evolutionary analysis of conserved TFBS. We also examined whether transcription dynamic was related to the presence of AU-rich elements (ARE) located in 3′UTR of the mRNA because recent studies have shown that the presence of AREs is associated with rapid gene induction. We found that Early genes were significantly enriched in NF-κB binding sites occurring in evolutionarily conserved domains compared to genes in the Late group. We also found that Early genes had significantly greater number of ARE sequences in the 3′UTR of the gene. The similarities observed among the Early genes were seen in comparison with distant species, while the Late genes promoter regions were much more diversified. Based on the promoter structure and ARE content, Middle genes can be divided into two subgroups which show similarities to Early and Late genes respectively.Conclusions: Our data suggests that the rapid response of the NF-κB dependent Early genes may be due to both increased gene transcription due to NF-κB loading as well as the contribution of mRNA instability to the transcript profiles. Wider phylogenetic analysis of NF-κB dependent genes provides insight into the degree of cross-species similarity found in the Early genes, opposed to many differences in promoter structure that can be found among the Late genes. These data suggest that activation and expression of the Late genes is much more species-specific than of the Early genes. © 2012 Iwanaszko et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Havemann D.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Balakrishnan M.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Borahay M.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Theiler R.,University of Texas Medical Branch | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Rationale: Intermedin (IMD) is a novel peptide expressed in trophoblast cells inhumanplacentaand enhances the invasion, migration, and human leukocyte antigen class I, G (HLA-G) expression in first-trimester HTR-8SV/neo cells. Werecently reported that infusion of IMD antagonist in pregnant rats is detrimental to pregnancy outcome, resulting in impaired fetoplacental growth and deformed placental vasculature. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess expression of IMD and its involvement in human implantation and early placentation and assess whether its expression is altered in spontaneous abortion. Findings and Conclusions: Wedemonstrate for the first time that IMD is present in day 5 embryonic secretome; villous and decidual expression of IMD is higher at 6-8 weeks after a decline as gestation advances toward the second trimester; first-trimester spontaneous abortion is associated with a lower expression of IMD in serum, villi, and decidua; IMD stimulates the invasive capacity of first-trimester primary Extravillous cytotrophoblast cells; and IMD decreases elevated levels of tumor suppressor Kangia-1 in decidual explants from first-trimester spontaneous abortion. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate a potential involvement of IMD in human embryo implantation and placental development via regulation of trophoblast invasion at the maternalfetal interface and suggests a physiological role for this novel peptide in establishment of human pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


Cushing C.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Phillips L.G.,301 University Boulevard
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2013

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Cite risk factors for pressure sore development. 2. Detail the pathophysiology of pressure sores. 3. List the types and classification of pressure sores. 4. Consider the various nonsurgical conservative wound management strategies. 5. Describe the appropriate surgical interventions for each pressure sore type. 6. Understand the causes of recurrent pressure sores and methods of avoiding recurrence. SUMMARY: Pressure sores are the result of unrelieved pressure, usually over a bony prominence. With an estimated 2.5 million pressure ulcers treated annually in the United States at a cost of $11 billion, pressure sores represent a costly and labor-intensive challenge to the health care system. A comprehensive team approach can address both prevention and treatment of these recalcitrant wounds. Consideration must be given to the patient's medical and socioeconomic condition, as these factors are significantly related to outcomes. Mechanical prophylaxis, nutritional optimization, treatment of underlying infection, and spasm control are essential in management. A variety of pressure sore patterns exist, with surgical approaches directed to maximize future coverage options. A comprehensive approach is detailed in this article to provide the reader with the range of treatment options available. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.


Goldson T.M.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Han Y.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Knight K.B.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Weiss H.L.,University of Kentucky | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology | Year: 2010

Lymphatic metastasis is associated with up to a 50% decrease in survival, yet the molecular mechanisms driving their establishment remain poorly understood. This study assessed clinicopathological characteristics correlated to nodal metastasis among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the identification of pathways on which to focus molecular studies. Pathology records were queried for cases diagnosed with invasive squamous cell cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract between 1993 and 2003. Charts and pathology reports were scored for 16 characteristics. The univariate association of each variable with lymph node status was assessed. Based on the univariate analysis, a multiple logistic regression model was developed to assess the simultaneous association of variables with lymph node status. Of the 644 cases identified, 234 had a surgical specimen analyzed. All variables were scored for 185 of the 234 cases. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis identified clinical stage (p = 0.0269), pathologic stage (p = 0.0162), grade (p = 0.0094), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.0393), and family history of cancer (p = 0.0079) as independently predictive of lymphatic metastases. Our study confirms that grade, pathologic stage, clinical stage, and lymphovascular invasion are predictors of regional metastasis. These correlations suggest that studying the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, interstitial pressure at the primary tumor site, and peritumoral lymphangiogenesis may provide insight into lymphatic metastasis. Additionally, we identified family history of cancer as a new predictor of lymphatic metastasis. Thus, genetic analysis of families with cancer, irrespective of type, may identify genes important for regional metastasis. © 2010 Old City Publishing, Inc.


Dyer K.M.,301 University Boulevard | Perkyns J.S.,301 University Boulevard | Pettitt B.M.,301 University Boulevard
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2016

We consider the dielectric response of angularly dependent site-site theories for models of aqueous saline solutions. We find that we can use relatively low order approximations of the angularly dependent correlation functions with correct long ranged behavior to obtain good estimates of the dielectric constant for three site water models and simple 1-1 salts. We find that the solution thermodynamics results for this level of theory, as measured by the Kirkwood G integrals and the excess chemical potentials, are in good quantitative agreement with simulation even when the details of the short ranged structure is not as accurately determined. We find that the dielectric constant predictions of both the pure fluid and the salt-water mixtures are similarly predictive, in comparison to both simulation and experiment. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Temple J.R.,301 University Boulevard | Shorey R.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Tortolero S.R.,University of Houston | Wolfe D.A.,University of Toronto | Stuart G.L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2013

Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence. Methods: The current study used structural equation modeling on a large ethnically diverse school-based sample of male and female adolescents (n=917) to address these gaps in the literature. Results: For adolescent girls, there was an association between exposure to interparental violence (father-to-mother and mother-to-father) and TDV perpetration (physical violence and psychological abuse). For adolescent boys, only an association between mother-to-father violence was related to their TDV perpetration. Further, for both girls and boys, the relationship between mother-to-father violence and perpetration of TDV was fully mediated by attitudes accepting of violence. Conclusion: These results suggest that attending to gender and targeting adolescents' attitudes about violence may be viable approaches to preventing TDV. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | 301 University Boulevard, VU University Amsterdam, UTMB and University of Texas Medical Branch
Type: | Journal: Virology | Year: 2014

Macrophages encounter flaviviruses early after injection by arthropod vectors. Using in vivo imaging of mice inoculated with firefly luciferase-expressing single-cycle flavivirus particles (FLUC-SCFV), we examined the initial dissemination of virus particles in the presence or absence of lymph node (LN)-resident macrophages. Higher luciferase activity, indicating higher SCFV gene expression, was detected in the footpad of macrophage-depleted mice after 24h post infection (hpi). Moreover, FLUC-SCFV particles disseminated to the spleen within 14 hpi in macrophage-depleted, but not control mice. Although macrophages presented SCFV to nave T cells in vitro, depletion of subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages did not alter the magnitude or effector function of the WNV-specific CD8(+) T cell response. Together, these results indicate that SCS macrophages play a role in limiting the dissemination of SCFV early in infection but are not required for the generation of a polyfunctional WNV-specific CD8(+) T cell response in the draining LN.

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