Temple J.R.,301 University Blvd |
Le V.D.,301 University Blvd |
van den Berg P.,301 University Blvd |
Paul J.A.,301 University Blvd |
Temple B.W.,Beansprout Pediatrics
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2014
The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Saad A.F.,301 University Blvd |
Hu W.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center |
Sood A.K.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center |
Sood A.K.,Center for Interference and Non Coding
Hormones and Cancer | Year: 2010
Multiple genetic alterations play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Although many key proteins and pathways involved in ovarian carcinogenesis and metastasis have been discovered, knowledge of the early steps leading to malignancy remains poorly understood. This poor understanding stems from lack of data from early-stage cancers and absence of a well-established premalignant state universal to all ovarian cancer subtypes. Existing evidence suggests that ovarian cancers develop either through a stepwise mutation process (low-grade pathway), through genetic instability resulting in hastened metastasis (high-grade pathway), or more recently through what has been described as the "'fimbrial-ovarian' serous neoplasia theory." In this latter model, ovarian serous cancers evolve from premalignant lesions in the distal fallopian tube called tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. In this manuscript, we review key genetic and molecular changes that occur in cancer cell progression and suggest a model of ovarian cancer pathogenesis involving both tumor cell mutations and microenvironmental factors. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Fang L.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Choudhary S.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Choudhary S.,301 University Blvd |
Zhao Y.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
And 7 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-like kinase family, is a master regulator of the double strand DNA break-repair pathway after genotoxic stress. Here, we found ATM serves as an essential regulator of TNF-induced NF-kB pathway. We observed that TNF exposure of cells rapidly induced DNA double strand breaks and activates ATM. TNF-induced ROS promote nuclear IKKγ association with ubiquitin and its complex formation with ATM for nuclear export. Activated cytoplasmic ATM is involved in the selective recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP to phospho-IκBα proteosomal degradation. Importantly, ATM binds and activates the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), ribosmal S6 kinase that controls RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. In ATM knockdown cells, TNF-induced RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation is significantly decreased. We further observed decreased binding and recruitment of the transcriptional elongation complex containing cyclin dependent kinase-9 (CDK9; a kinase necessary for triggering transcriptional elongation) to promoters of NF-κB-dependent immediate-early cytokine genes, in ATM knockdown cells. We conclude that ATM is a nuclear damage-response signal modulator of TNF-induced NF-κB activation that plays a key scaffolding role in IκBα degradation and RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation of decreased innate immune response associated with A-T mutation. © 2014 The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Nair G.V.,301 University Blvd |
Variyam E.P.,University of Texas Medical Branch
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although research with the organism began in the late nineteenth century, our understanding of the natural history of the infection remains incomplete and is heavily based on expert opinion. Most persons infected with E. histolytica are carriers with the organism colonizing the large intestine. Host defense mechanisms that prevent invasive diseases are poorly understood. A timely review could lead to renewed interest. RECENT FINDINGS: We herein review 2012 and 2013 publications related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, management and potential mechanisms that enable noninvasive E. histolytica colonization without invasion. SUMMARY: There are several publications that advance our knowledge in the first three categories listed above, but studies of mechanisms for noninvasive E. histolytica colonization are glaringly few. © 2014 Wolters kluwer Health.
Guerrero-Munoz M.J.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Castillo-Carranza D.L.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Krishnamurthy S.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Paulucci-Holthauzen A.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
And 6 more authors.
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2014
Alzheimer's disease is a complex disease characterized by overlapping phenotypes with different neurodegenerative disorders. Oligomers are considered the most toxic species in amyloid pathologies. We examined human AD brain samples using an anti-oligomer antibody generated in our laboratory and detected potential hybrid oligomers composed of amyloid-β, prion protein, α-synuclein, and TDP-43 phosphorylated at serines 409 and 410. These data and in vitro results suggest that Aβ oligomer seeds act as a template for the aggregation of other proteins and generate an overlapping phenotype with other neuronal disorders. Furthermore, these results could explain why anti-amyloid-β therapy has been unsuccessful. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Kasturi K.S.,301 University Blvd |
Chennareddygari S.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Mummadi R.R.,301 University Blvd
Transplant International | Year: 2010
Bone mineral density (BMD) loss after liver transplantation (LT) results in considerable morbidity with the increased risk of fractures. Data on the efficacy of bisphosphonate use in post LT patients is scarce. This meta-analysis aims to summarize the results from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the topic of interest. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant publications. A total of 157 articles were identified and reviewed. Individual authors were contacted from relevant RCTs to obtain individual patient data where necessary to uniformly quantify BMD values post LT pre- and post LT. A total of six RCTs were used for final data extraction. (i) Lumbar Spine: In 364 patients (six studies, 182 in intervention and control groups each), bisphosphonate therapy improved BMD by 0.03 g/cm2 (95% C.I. 0.01-0.05 g/cm2; P = 0.02) at 12 months post LT. (ii) Femoral neck: In 268 patients (four studies, 130 bisphosphonate, 138 control), bisphosphonate use did not result in a statistically significant change in BMD at the end of 1 year. None of the studies noted serious adverse effects related to bisphosphonate administration. Data on incident fractures could not be pooled because of heterogeneity. Bisphosphonate therapy during the first year in LT recipients appears to reduce accelerated bone loss and improve bone mineral density at the lumbar spine. © 2009 European Society for Organ Transplantation.
Suarez G.,301 University Blvd |
Sierra J.C.,301 University Blvd |
Erova T.E.,301 University Blvd |
Sha J.,301 University Blvd |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2010
We recently delineated the importance of a type VI secretion system (T6SS) gene cluster in the virulence of diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila and showed that VasH, a σ54 activator and T6SS component, was involved in the production of its associated effectors, e.g., hemolysin-coregulated protein. To identify additional T6SS effectors and/or secreted proteins, we subjected culture supernatants from deletion mutants of A. hydrophila, namely, a Δact mutant (a T2SS-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin-encoding gene) and a Δact ΔvasH mutant, to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. Based on these approaches, we identified a member of the VgrG protein family, VgrG1, that contained a vegetative insecticidal protein (VIP-2) domain at its carboxyl-terminal end. Consequently, the vgrG1 gene was cloned in pBI-EGFP and pET-30a vectors to be expressed in HeLa Tet-Off cells and Escherichia coli, respectively. We assessed the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity of various domains of purified recombinant VgrG1 (rVgrG1) and provided evidence that only the full-length VgrG1, as well as its carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the VIP-2 domain, showed ADPRT activity. Importantly, bacterium-host cell interaction was needed for the T6SS to induce cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells, and we demonstrated translocation of VgrG1. Furthermore, our data indicated that expression of the genes encoding the full-length VgrG1 and its carboxyl-terminal domain in HeLa Tet-Off cells disrupted the actin cytoskeleton, which was followed by a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis. Taken together, these findings demonstrated for the first time that VgrG1 of A. hydrophila possessed actin ADPRT activity associated with its VIP-2 domain and that this domain alone was able to induce a rounded phenotype in HeLa Tet-Off cells, followed by apoptosis mediated by caspase 9 activation. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Kline J.N.,Clinical Translational Science Institute |
Rose R.M.,301 University Blvd
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014
Asthma is a biomedical disorder whose presentation can be markedly influenced by neurological and psychological factors. This chapter describes several approaches that provide insight into the role of psychological factors and brain function in asthma. These include the study of placebo responses and recent explorations using functional neuroimaging during the onset of asthma symptoms. Although the specific mechanisms involved remain uncertain, we are gaining an appreciation for some of the neurocircuitry that is involved. The insula and ACC may modulate inflammatory processes by their influence on neuroendocrine responses to stress, including highly studied effects on the HPA axis and its physiologic responses. However much we have recently learned, it is clear that further study of this topic is critical to fully explicate the role of the brain in asthma. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014.
Temple J.R.,301 University Blvd |
Choi H.,301 University Blvd
Pediatrics | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: This study examines the temporal sequencing of sexting and sexual intercourse and the role of active sexting (sending a nude picture) in mediating the relationship between passive sexting (asking or being asked for a nude picture) and sexual behaviors. METHODS: Data are from Wave 2 (spring 2011) and Wave 3 (spring 2012) of an ongoing 6-year longitudinal study of high school students in southeast Texas. Participants included 964 ethnically diverse adolescents with a mean age of 16.09 years (56% female; 31% African American, 29% Caucasian, 28% Hispanic, 12% other). Retention rate for 1-year follow-up was 93%. Participants self-reported history of sexual activity (intercourse, risky sex) and sexting (sent, asked, been asked). Using path analysis, we examined whether teen sexting at baseline predicted sexual behavior at 1-year follow-up and whether active sexting mediated the relationship between passive sexting and sexual behavior. RESULTS: The odds of being sexually active at Wave 3 were 1.32 times larger for youth who sent a sext at Wave 2, relative to counterparts. However, sexting was not temporally associated with risky sexual behaviors. Consistent with our hypothesis, active sexting at Wave 2 mediated the relationship between asking or being asked for a sext and having sex over the next year. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends cross-sectional literature and supports the notion that sexting fits within the context of adolescent sexual development and may be a viable indicator of adolescent sexual activity. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Graham J.E.,301 University Blvd |
Karmarkar A.M.,301 University Blvd |
Ottenbacher K.J.,301 University Blvd
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012
Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This article examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on 10 or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using 3 examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed. © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.