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Madison, WI, United States

Yang Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Jiang J.J.,300 University Avenue
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

We observed and calculated the solid and liquid volumes and mass parameters of canine vocal fold thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle at tissue dehydration levels of 30% and 70% followed by a complete rehydration to examine the effects of hydration recovery with respect to biphasic properties of the TA muscle in relation to the vocal fold lamina propria. Twenty samples of TA muscle were harvested from 10 canine larynges. Each sample group was subjected to either 30% or 70% dehydration. Following dehydration, the samples rehydrated until the tissue mass stabilized. The solid volume and mass fraction, liquid volume and mass fraction, liquidsolid volume and mass ratios, and degree of hydration recovery were calculated. Median liquid-solid volume ratios were significantly different between the 30% and 70% groups after rehydration and between the medians of 30% and 70% liquid-solid mass ratios after rehydration. The means of solid mass fraction, liquid mass fraction, solid volume fraction, and liquid volume fraction all displayed statistically significant differences. Irreversible tissue damage undergone via severe dehydration of the TA muscle indicates the anatomical and physiological similarity between the TA muscle and the lamina propria. The results imply the significance of the biphasic theory in the construction of biomechanical models. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Gentry L.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Jiang J.J.,300 University Avenue
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2012

There is debate concerning the mechanism of Eustachian tube (ET) ventilation. While a mechanism of complete opening has been advocated previously, sequential contraction of the levator veli palatini and medial pterygoid muscles followed by the tensor veli palatini and lateral pterygoid muscles may produce a transient sequential opening mechanism, allowing an air bolus to traverse the ET. This may explain confusion surrounding sonotubometry reports that not every swallow leads to sound passage in normal subjects. We hypothesize that the ET may not need to open completely when ventilating the middle ear; rather, a discrete air bolus can pass through it. Five normal and Wve disordered subjects underwent low-radiation dose cine computed tomography (CT) scans of the ET. Sixteen contiguous 2.5 mm slice locations were chosen through a 4 cm area in the nasopharynx that were parallel to and encompassed the entire ET. Twelve images were acquired at each slice over 4.8 s during swallowing and other tasks. Serial images were analyzed. An air bolus was observed passing through the ET in the normal subjects, but not the subject with ET dysfunction. Medial and lateral pterygoid contractions were also observed. A new hypothetical mechanism of transient sequential ET ventilation is presented. This is not a deWnitive conclusion, as the number of scans taken and maneuvers used was limited. Improved understanding of ET ventilation may facilitate management of middle ear disease as treatment evolves from ventilatory tube placement to ET manipulation. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Zhu Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Witt R.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | MacCallum J.K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Jiang J.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Jiang J.J.,300 University Avenue
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica | Year: 2010

Objective: In this study, a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communication based on G.729 protocol was simulated to determine the effects of this system on acoustic perturbation parameters of normal and pathological voice signals. Patients and Methods: Fifty recordings of normal voice and 48 recordings of pathological voice affected by laryngeal paralysis were transmitted through a VoIP communication system. The acoustic analysis programs of CSpeech and MDVP were used to determine the percent jitter and percent shimmer from the voice samples before and after VoIP transmission. The effects of three frequently used audio compression protocols (MP3, WMA, and FLAC) on the perturbation measures were also studied. Results: It was found that VoIP transmission disrupts the waveform and increases the percent jitter and percent shimmer of voice samples. However, after VoIP transmission, significant discrimination between normal and pathological voices affected by laryngeal paralysis was still possible. It was found that the lossless compression method FLAC does not exert any influence on the perturbation measures. The lossy compression methods MP3 and WMA increase percent jitter and percent shimmer values. Conclusion: This study validates the feasibility of these transmission and compression protocols in developing remote voice signal data collection and assessment systems. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Wilbarger J.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Wilbarger J.L.,300 University Avenue | Cook D.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Objective: To document sensory sensitivities to nonnoxious sensory stimuli in daily life for participants with fibromyalgia (FM). Design Descriptive study of a convenience sample using a self-report survey of sensory processing. Setting Participants were recruited from the general community. The procedure took place in a research room at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Participants Women with FM (n=27) were compared with women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=28) and healthy pain-free women (controls) (n=28) (N=83). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure A self-report measure of sensory sensitivity to stimuli encountered in daily life. Items ask participants if they are sensitive to sensations that do not seem to bother other people or avoid common activities or environments because of sensory stimuli. Results The FM group reported significantly increased sensory sensitivities to both somatic (tactile) and nonsomatic (eg, auditory and olfactory) sensory stimuli compared with the RA and control groups. The RA and control groups did not differ in reported hypersensitivities. Conclusions Women with fibromyalgia reported increased sensitivities to stimuli in the environment and could experience more stress related to sensory conditions in daily life. © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Krausert C.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Olszewski A.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Taylor L.N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | McMurray J.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Voice | Year: 2011

Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical for high-quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so-called "mucosal wave." Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography, photoglottography, and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography, stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging. The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations and its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. © 2011 The Voice Foundation.

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