3 Drivers Engineering

Lisbon, Portugal

3 Drivers Engineering

Lisbon, Portugal
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Ferrao P.,University of Lisbon | Ribeiro P.,3 Drivers Engineering | Rodrigues J.,University of Lisbon | Marques A.,University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2014

The impact of the management of packaging waste on the environment, economic growth and job creation is analyzed in this paper. This integrated assessment intends to cover a gap in the literature for this type of studies, using the specific case study of the Portuguese packaging waste management system (SIGRE). The net environmental benefits associated with the management of packaging waste, are calculated using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The results show that, for the categories studied, the impacts associated to SIGRE's various activities are surpassed by the benefits associated to material and energy recovery, with special focus on recycling. For example, in 2011 SIGRE avoided the emission of 116 kt CO2 equiv. - the equivalent carbon emission of the electricity consumption of 124.000 households in Portugal. The economic impact of SIGRE is evaluated through Input-Output Analysis. It was found that SIGRE's activities also have a significant economic impact. For example, their added value are ranked amongst the upper third of the economic activities with highest multiplier effect at national level: this means that for each Euro of value added generated within SIGRE, 1.25 additional € are added to the rest of the economy (multiplier effect of 2.25). Regarding the social impacts of SIGRE, the number of direct jobs associated with the system is estimated to be more than two thousand and three hundred workers. Out of these, 83% are connected to the management of municipal waste packaging (selective collection and sorting), 15% are connected to the management of non-municipal packaging waste and only 2% are connected to the Sociedade Ponto Verde (SPV, green dot society in English) - the management entity responsible for SIGRE. In general terms, the results obtained provide quantitative support to the EEA (2011) suggestion that moving up the waste hierarchy - from landfilling to recycling - creates jobs and boosts the economy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Patricio J.,University of Lisbon | Costa I.,3 Drivers Engineering | Niza S.,University of Lisbon
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Promoting the recovery of waste produced by companies in urban areas through Inter-firm relations such as Industrial Symbiosis, Resource Recovery or In-House Reuse can be seen as good approaches to achieve materials loop closure and foster self-reliance (resilience), by decreasing dependence of external sources. In this article the industrial waste produced in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA) during 2008 is assessed. By applying a Material Flow Analysis methodology, the research identifies the amount of waste that was recovered as well as the Recovery Networks that each transaction is integrated in. Additionally, it was performed an identification of the composition of the waste disposed and the results were computed against a database of waste recovery cases worldwide. Possible recovery solutions of the disposed waste were identified and proposals of improvement of the recovery network are advanced. Results show that a high amount of waste produced by the companies located in the LMA was recovered (791,086 tonnes from the 1,000,091 tonnes of generated waste). The Resource Recovery network processed 43% of the wastes, In-house reuse, 34%, and Industrial Symbiosis, 23%. The recovery solutions identified for the disposal waste show that at least 68% of the 209,005 tonnes disposed could also be recovered, increasing the total amount for Industrial wasted recovered from 79% to 94%. The performance of the waste recovery network in this region supports the results of previous researches and uncovers new behavioural characteristics, namely when comparing Industrial Symbiosis and Resource Recovery. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rodrigues J.F.D.,Leiden University | Lorena A.,University of Lisbon | Costa I.,University of Lisbon | Ribeiro P.,3 Drivers Engineering | Ferrao P.,3 Drivers Engineering
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2016

Under an extended producer responsibility (EPR) system, when a producer delivers a product to the market it must also pay a takeback fee, which is used to cover the costs of end-of-life disposal. EPR systems are currently used in Europe and beyond to manage a variety of products, including packaging and used tires. In this article we develop an input-output (IO) model that is able to assess the impacts of an EPR system, and is based on the waste IO (WIO) model. The WIO model is itself a hybrid-unit model extension of the Leontief model that is able to capture the substitution effect between recycled/recovered material/energy from waste treatment and their non-waste cognates. The resulting EPRIO model, besides the conventional direct and indirect effects of the Leontief model and the substitution effects of the WIO model, is able to capture the opportunity costs of financing the EPR system, and additionally requires the specification of an alternative waste management policy, with its own opportunity costs. The impact of an EPR policy is thus the difference between the impacts of the reference EPR and the alternative waste treament policies. The resulting model is illustrated with a simple example of a used tire management EPR system. © 2016 by Yale University.

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