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Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

De Fraiture C.,UNESCO IHE | Kouali G.N.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Sally H.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Kabre P.,2iE
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

Small reservoirs in Burkina Faso are constructed for many purposes such as domestic water uses, livestock watering and irrigated rice production downstream of the dam. Increasingly farmers use individually owned motorized pumps to draw water directly from the reservoir and irrigate vegetables upstream of the dam. This practice, while tolerated, is unauthorized and referred to as 'irrigation pirate' in French. Upstream vegetable cultivation is successful because it is more profitable than downstream rice cultivation. Often, the 'unofficial' irrigated area around the reservoir is much larger than the official command area below the dam. However, in the absence of an overarching authority to manage the water source, this may lead to conflicts and resource degradation. We take the example of the Korsimoro reservoir in Burkina Faso to illustrate the positive and negative impacts of spontaneous individual irrigation around communally managed water bodies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Paturee J.-E.,RD HSM UM II | Boubacar I.,2iE | Laour-Cres A.,RD HSM UM II | Mahe G.,RD HSM UM II
Revue des Sciences de l'Eau | Year: 2010

ORSTOM, today IRD ("Institut de Recherche pour le Dé veloppement"), is a French institute of research that has been conducting research in Africa for the last 60 years. Since this period, agroclimatologists and hydrologists of IRD have never stopped collecting, validating and completing hydroclimatic data over West and Central Africa. In the view of modelling runoff in this part of the world, our team, HydroSciences Montpellier (HSM), manages an hydroclimatic and environmental database (SIEREM). Using all the collected pluviometric data, we have been calculating monthly rainfall on a regular 0.5° * 0.5° gridding, each mesh corresponding to approximately 2,750 km2. To assess the value of these gridded rainfall data, we compared them with those provided by the Climate Research Unit of University of East Anglia (CRU-UEA). The IRD and CRU grids are very similar but the former IRD grids are computed from more stations and have proven to be more reliable when predicting stream flows using two rainfall-runoff models. These grids are available from free of charge from SIEREM database website (http://www.hydrosciences.fr/sierem/index.htm). Source

Barbier M.T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Giroux F.,Montpellier Sup Agro | Coulibaly Y.,2iE | Marouze C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

A knowledge-based tool was implemented in order to assist in the design of food processing equipment. It was developed and suggested for the use of professionals who are seeking creative solutions for processing principles in a given context and under specific constraints, especially in the context of weak knowledge of food engineering and material properties, poor economic conditions, and impossibility of efficient use of existing design methodologies. This is usually the case in many developing countries where equipment supply is mostly limited to copies and adaptations of a few models despite the big size of small scale food processing sector, which results in the use of unsuitable equipment, lack of efficiency, and bad quality. This new tool uses knowledge-based methodology starting with the identification of the most useful function (MUF) to be achieved in order to identify the main product property change, hence leading to the implementation of the targeted product. MUFs are linked to scientific effects that can achieve them in order to suggest designers a wide range of potential solutions. To facilitate and orient access to useful knowledge for a given problem of food processing principles, this tool is designed using a database program and links to related and existing web-based sites. Selection of optimal equipment types is finally carried out by combining users' manufacturing skills and specifications in terms of cost, maintenance and current use scheme. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). Source

Polcher J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Parker D.J.,University of Leeds | Gaye A.,LPAO SF UCAD | Diedhiou A.,LTHE IRD | And 12 more authors.
Atmospheric Science Letters | Year: 2011

The AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project set out to better understand the geophysical processes which govern the evolution of the monsoon and provide the science needed to improve prediction and decision-support systems. The control exerted by weather and climate on agronomic production, water resources and public health was studied to evaluate the potential for populations to adapt. AMMA made advances which have the potential to improve forecasts from weather to climate scales. Translating them into operational tools for decision making will require improvements to the observational networks, and stronger support for the organizations which generate and disseminate application forecasts. Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

Torou B.M.,International Water Management Institute | Favreau G.,IRD Montpellier | Barbier B.,CIRAD | Pavelic P.,International Water Management Institute | And 2 more authors.
Water International | Year: 2013

Land-use-change-induced increases in shallow groundwater levels across parts of the Sahel in recent years have coincided with expanded use of groundwater for irrigation. This study was conducted to assess the potential linkages and livelihood implications based on a field survey of nine villages building on previous hydrological studies. The results show that irrigators lack effective means of production and mostly rely on manual methods. Borehole usage is more profitable and reliable than shallower wells. Overall incomes from irrigation are relatively small and severely constrained by the limited field scale due to high establishment and operating costs. © 2013 2013 International Water Resources Association. Source

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