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Regensburg, Germany

Stoltenburg R.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH | Strehlitz B.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

A new DNA aptamer targeting Protein A is presented. The aptamer was selected by use of the FluMag-SELEX procedure. The SELEX technology (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) is widely applied as an in vitro selection and amplification method to generate target-specific aptamers and exists in various modified variants. FluMag-SELEX is one of them and is characterized by the use of magnetic beads for target immobilization and fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides for monitoring the aptamer selection progress. Structural investigations and sequence truncation experiments of the selected aptamer for Protein A led to the conclusion, that a stem-loop structure at its 5'-end including the 5'-primer binding site is essential for aptamer-target binding. Extensive interaction analyses between aptamer and Protein A were performed by methods like surface plasmon resonance, MicroScale Thermophoresis and bead-based binding assays using fluorescence measurements. The binding of the aptamer to its target was thus investigated in assays with immobilization of one of the binding partners each, and with both binding partners in solution. Affinity constants were determined in the low micromolar to submicromolar range, increasing to the nanomolar range under the assumption of avidity. Protein A provides more than one binding site for the aptamer, which may overlap with the known binding sites for immunoglobulins. The aptamer binds specifically to both native and recombinant Protein A, but not to other immunoglobulin-binding proteins like Protein G and L. Cross specificity to other proteins was not found. The application of the aptamer is directed to Protein A detection or affinity purification. Moreover, whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus, presenting Protein A on the cell surface, could also be bound by the aptamer. Copyright: © 2015 Stoltenburg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Friedrich U.,University of Regensburg | Datta S.,University of Regensburg | Schubert T.,University of Regensburg | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

High-temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is a secreted serine protease reported to play a role in the development of several cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Still, the mechanism underlying the disease processes largely remains undetermined. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common cause of vision impairment and blindness in industrialized societies, two synonymous polymorphisms in exon 1 of the htra1 gene were associated with a high risk to develop disease. Here, we show that the two polymorphisms result in a protein with altered thermophoretic properties upon heat-induced unfolding, trypsin accessibility and secretion behavior, suggesting unique structural features of the AMDrisk-associated HTRA1 protein. Applying MicroScale Thermophoresis and protease digestion analysis, we demonstrate direct binding and proteolysis of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-β1) by normal HTRA1 but not the AMD-risk-associated isoform. As a consequence, both HTRA1 isoforms strongly differed in their ability to control TGF-β mediated signaling, as revealed by reporter assays targeting the TGF-β1-induced serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPINE1, alias PAI-1) promoter. In addition, structurally altered HTRA1 led to an impaired autocrine TGF-β signaling in microglia, as measured by a strong down-regulation of downstream effectors of the TGF-β cascade such as phosphorylated SMAD2 and PAI-1 expression. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the effects of two synonymous HTRA1 variants on protein structure and protein interaction with TGF-β1. As a consequence, this leads to an impairment of TGF-β signaling and microglial regulation. Functional implications of the altered properties on AMD pathogenesis remain to be clarified. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Josling G.A.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Petter M.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Oehring S.C.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Oehring S.C.,University of Basel | And 21 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2015

Summary During red-blood-cell-stage infection of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite undergoes repeated rounds of replication, egress, and invasion. Erythrocyte invasion involves specific interactions between host cell receptors and parasite ligands and coordinated expression of genes specific to this step of the life cycle. We show that a parasite-specific bromodomain protein, PfBDP1, binds to chromatin at transcriptional start sites of invasion-related genes and directly controls their expression. Conditional PfBDP1 knockdown causes a dramatic defect in parasite invasion and growth and results in transcriptional downregulation of multiple invasion-related genes at a time point critical for invasion. Conversely, PfBDP1 overexpression enhances expression of these same invasion-related genes. PfBDP1 binds to acetylated histone H3 and a second bromodomain protein, PfBDP2, suggesting a potential mechanism for gene recognition and control. Collectively, these findings show that PfBDP1 critically coordinates expression of invasion genes and indicate that targeting PfBDP1 could be an invaluable tool in malaria eradication. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jauset Rubio M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Svobodova M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Mairal T.,Rovira i Virgili University | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

An aptamer was previously selected against the anaphylactic allergen β-conglutin (β-CBA I), which was subsequently truncated to an 11-mer and the affinity improved by two orders of magnitude. The work reported here details the selection and characterisation of a second aptamer (β-CBA II) selected against a second aptatope on the β-conglutin target. The affinity of this second aptamer was similar to that of the 11-mer, and its affinity was confirmed by three different techniques at three independent laboratories. This β-CBA II aptamer in combination with the previously selected β-CBA I was then exploited to a dual-aptamer approach. The specific and simultaneous binding of the dual aptamer (β-CBA I and β-CBA II) to different sites of β-conglutin was confirmed using both microscale thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance where β-CBA II serves as the primary capturing aptamer and β-CBA I or the truncated β-CBA I (11-mer) as the secondary signalling aptamer, which can be further exploited in enzyme-linked aptamer assays and aptasensors. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Entzian C.,2bind GmbH | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH
Methods | Year: 2015

Aptamers are potent and versatile binding molecules recognizing various classes of target molecules. Even challenging targets such as small molecules can be identified and bound by aptamers. Studying the interaction between aptamers and drugs, antibiotics or metabolites in detail is however difficult due to the lack of sophisticated analysis methods. Basic binding parameters of these small molecule-aptamer interactions such as binding affinity, stoichiometry and thermodynamics are elaborately to access using the state of the art technologies. The innovative MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a novel, rapid and precise method to characterize these small molecule-aptamer interactions in solution at microliter scale. The technology is based on the movement of molecules through temperature gradients, a physical effect referred to as thermophoresis. The thermophoretic movement of a molecule depends - besides on its size - on charge and hydration shell. Upon the interaction of a small molecule and an aptamer, at least one of these parameters is altered, leading to a change in the movement behavior, which can be used to quantify molecular interactions independent of the size of the target molecule. The MST offers free choice of buffers, even measurements in complex bioliquids are possible. The dynamic affinity range covers the pM to mM range and is therefore perfectly suited to analyze small molecule-aptamer interactions. This section describes a protocol how quantitative binding parameters for aptamer-small molecule interactions can be obtained by MST. This is demonstrated by mapping down the binding site of the well-known ATP aptamer DH25.42 to a specific region at the adenine of the ATP molecule. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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