2bind GmbH

Regensburg, Germany

2bind GmbH

Regensburg, Germany
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Knuppel R.,University of Regensburg | Kuttenberger C.,University of Regensburg | Kuttenberger C.,2bind GmbH | Ferreira-Cerca S.,University of Regensburg
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

Archaea are widespread organisms colonizing almost every habitat on Earth. However, the molecular biology of archaea still remains relatively uncharacterized. RNA metabolism is a central cellular process, which has been extensively analyzed in both bacteria and eukarya. In contrast, analysis of RNA metabolism dynamic in archaea has been limited to date. To facilitate analysis of the RNA metabolism dynamic at a system-wide scale in archaea, we have established non-radioactive pulse labeling of RNA, using the nucleotide analog 4-thiouracil (4TU) in two commonly used model archaea: the halophile Euryarchaeota Haloferax volcanii, and the thermo-acidophile Crenarchaeota Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. In this work, we show that 4TU pulse labeling can be efficiently performed in these two organisms in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, our results suggest that uracil prototrophy had no critical impact on the overall 4TU incorporation in RNA molecules. Accordingly, our work suggests that 4TU incorporation can be widely performed in archaea, thereby expanding the molecular toolkit to analyze archaeal gene expression network dynamic in unprecedented detail. © 2017 Knüppel, Kuttenberger and Ferreira-Cerca.


Entzian C.,2bind GmbH | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2017

Characterization of molecular interactions in terms of basic binding parameters such as binding affinity, stoichiometry, and thermodynamics is an essential step in basic and applied science. MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a sensitive biophysical method to obtain this important information. Relying on a physical effect called thermophoresis, which describes the movement of molecules through temperature gradients, this technology allows for the fast and precise determination of binding parameters in solution and allows the free choice of buffer conditions (from buffer to lysates/sera). MST uses the fact that an unbound molecule displays a different thermophoretic movement than a molecule that is in complex with a binding partner. The thermophoretic movement is altered in the moment of molecular interaction due to changes in size, charge, and hydration shell. By comparing the movement profiles of different molecular ratios of the two binding partners, quantitative information such as binding affinity (pM to mM) can be determined. Even challenging interactions between molecules of small sizes, such as aptamers and small compounds, can be studied by MST. Using the well-studied model interaction between the DH25.42 DNA aptamer and ATP, this manuscript provides a protocol to characterize aptamer-small molecule interactions. This study demonstrates that MST is highly sensitive and permits the mapping of the binding site of the 7.9 kDa DNA aptamer to the adenine of ATP. © 2017 Journal of Visualized Experiments.


Stoltenburg R.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH | Strehlitz B.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

A new DNA aptamer targeting Protein A is presented. The aptamer was selected by use of the FluMag-SELEX procedure. The SELEX technology (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) is widely applied as an in vitro selection and amplification method to generate target-specific aptamers and exists in various modified variants. FluMag-SELEX is one of them and is characterized by the use of magnetic beads for target immobilization and fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides for monitoring the aptamer selection progress. Structural investigations and sequence truncation experiments of the selected aptamer for Protein A led to the conclusion, that a stem-loop structure at its 5'-end including the 5'-primer binding site is essential for aptamer-target binding. Extensive interaction analyses between aptamer and Protein A were performed by methods like surface plasmon resonance, MicroScale Thermophoresis and bead-based binding assays using fluorescence measurements. The binding of the aptamer to its target was thus investigated in assays with immobilization of one of the binding partners each, and with both binding partners in solution. Affinity constants were determined in the low micromolar to submicromolar range, increasing to the nanomolar range under the assumption of avidity. Protein A provides more than one binding site for the aptamer, which may overlap with the known binding sites for immunoglobulins. The aptamer binds specifically to both native and recombinant Protein A, but not to other immunoglobulin-binding proteins like Protein G and L. Cross specificity to other proteins was not found. The application of the aptamer is directed to Protein A detection or affinity purification. Moreover, whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus, presenting Protein A on the cell surface, could also be bound by the aptamer. Copyright: © 2015 Stoltenburg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Entzian C.,2bind GmbH | Schubert T.,2bind GmbH
Methods | Year: 2015

Aptamers are potent and versatile binding molecules recognizing various classes of target molecules. Even challenging targets such as small molecules can be identified and bound by aptamers. Studying the interaction between aptamers and drugs, antibiotics or metabolites in detail is however difficult due to the lack of sophisticated analysis methods. Basic binding parameters of these small molecule-aptamer interactions such as binding affinity, stoichiometry and thermodynamics are elaborately to access using the state of the art technologies. The innovative MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a novel, rapid and precise method to characterize these small molecule-aptamer interactions in solution at microliter scale. The technology is based on the movement of molecules through temperature gradients, a physical effect referred to as thermophoresis. The thermophoretic movement of a molecule depends - besides on its size - on charge and hydration shell. Upon the interaction of a small molecule and an aptamer, at least one of these parameters is altered, leading to a change in the movement behavior, which can be used to quantify molecular interactions independent of the size of the target molecule. The MST offers free choice of buffers, even measurements in complex bioliquids are possible. The dynamic affinity range covers the pM to mM range and is therefore perfectly suited to analyze small molecule-aptamer interactions. This section describes a protocol how quantitative binding parameters for aptamer-small molecule interactions can be obtained by MST. This is demonstrated by mapping down the binding site of the well-known ATP aptamer DH25.42 to a specific region at the adenine of the ATP molecule. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | NanoTemper Technologies GmbH and 2bind GmbH
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2015

The characterization and development of highly specific aptamers requires the analysis of the interaction strength between aptamer and target. MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a rapid and precise method to quantify biomolecular interactions in solution at microliter scale. The basis of this technology is a physical effect referred to as thermophoresis, which describes the directed movement of molecules through temperature gradients. The thermophoretic properties of a molecule depend on its size, charge, and hydration shell. Since at least one of these parameters is altered upon binding of a ligand, this method can be used to analyze virtually any biomolecular interaction in any buffer or complex bioliquid. This section provides a detailed protocol describing how MST is used to obtain quantitative binding parameters for aptamer-target interactions. The two DNA-aptamers HD1 and HD22, which are targeted against human thrombin, are used as model systems to demonstrate a rapid and straightforward screening approach to determine optimal buffer conditions.


PubMed | 2bind GmbH
Type: | Journal: Methods (San Diego, Calif.) | Year: 2016

Aptamers are potent and versatile binding molecules recognizing various classes of target molecules. Even challenging targets such as small molecules can be identified and bound by aptamers. Studying the interaction between aptamers and drugs, antibiotics or metabolites in detail is however difficult due to the lack of sophisticated analysis methods. Basic binding parameters of these small molecule-aptamer interactions such as binding affinity, stoichiometry and thermodynamics are elaborately to access using the state of the art technologies. The innovative MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a novel, rapid and precise method to characterize these small molecule-aptamer interactions in solution at microliter scale. The technology is based on the movement of molecules through temperature gradients, a physical effect referred to as thermophoresis. The thermophoretic movement of a molecule depends - besides on its size - on charge and hydration shell. Upon the interaction of a small molecule and an aptamer, at least one of these parameters is altered, leading to a change in the movement behavior, which can be used to quantify molecular interactions independent of the size of the target molecule. The MST offers free choice of buffers, even measurements in complex bioliquids are possible. The dynamic affinity range covers the pM to mM range and is therefore perfectly suited to analyze small molecule-aptamer interactions. This section describes a protocol how quantitative binding parameters for aptamer-small molecule interactions can be obtained by MST. This is demonstrated by mapping down the binding site of the well-known ATP aptamer DH25.42 to a specific region at the adenine of the ATP molecule.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, University of Bonn and 2bind GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2016

An aptamer was previously selected against the anaphylactic allergen -conglutin (-CBA I), which was subsequently truncated to an 11-mer and the affinity improved by two orders of magnitude. The work reported here details the selection and characterisation of a second aptamer (-CBA II) selected against a second aptatope on the -conglutin target. The affinity of this second aptamer was similar to that of the 11-mer, and its affinity was confirmed by three different techniques at three independent laboratories. This -CBA II aptamer in combination with the previously selected -CBA I was then exploited to a dual-aptamer approach. The specific and simultaneous binding of the dual aptamer (-CBA I and -CBA II) to different sites of -conglutin was confirmed using both microscale thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance where -CBA II serves as the primary capturing aptamer and -CBA I or the truncated -CBA I (11-mer) as the secondary signalling aptamer, which can be further exploited in enzyme-linked aptamer assays and aptasensors.


PubMed | Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research and 2bind GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

A new DNA aptamer targeting Protein A is presented. The aptamer was selected by use of the FluMag-SELEX procedure. The SELEX technology (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) is widely applied as an in vitro selection and amplification method to generate target-specific aptamers and exists in various modified variants. FluMag-SELEX is one of them and is characterized by the use of magnetic beads for target immobilization and fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides for monitoring the aptamer selection progress. Structural investigations and sequence truncation experiments of the selected aptamer for Protein A led to the conclusion, that a stem-loop structure at its 5-end including the 5-primer binding site is essential for aptamer-target binding. Extensive interaction analyses between aptamer and Protein A were performed by methods like surface plasmon resonance, MicroScale Thermophoresis and bead-based binding assays using fluorescence measurements. The binding of the aptamer to its target was thus investigated in assays with immobilization of one of the binding partners each, and with both binding partners in solution. Affinity constants were determined in the low micromolar to submicromolar range, increasing to the nanomolar range under the assumption of avidity. Protein A provides more than one binding site for the aptamer, which may overlap with the known binding sites for immunoglobulins. The aptamer binds specifically to both native and recombinant Protein A, but not to other immunoglobulin-binding proteins like Protein G and L. Cross specificity to other proteins was not found. The application of the aptamer is directed to Protein A detection or affinity purification. Moreover, whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus, presenting Protein A on the cell surface, could also be bound by the aptamer.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, King Abdulaziz University and 2bind GmbH
Type: | Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2016

The rapid and sensitive detection of small molecules is garnering increasing importance, and aptamers show great promise in replacing expensive, elaborate detection platforms exploiting chromatographic separation or antibody-based assays. The characterization of aptamer interaction with small molecule targets is not facile, and there is a mature need for a rapid, high-throughput technique for the analysis of aptamer-small molecule kinetics and affinity. In this work we present methodologies for the evaluation of aptamer-small molecule interactions, using the aptamers reported against the steroid 17-estradiol as a model system. Microscale thermophoresis, apta-PCR affinity assay and surface plasmon resonance were explored to evaluate the reported aptamers binding properties in terms of affinity and specificity, and were demonstrated to be successfully applied to the analysis of aptamer-small molecule interactions.


PubMed | Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Nanyang Technological University, University of Basel and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell host & microbe | Year: 2015

During red-blood-cell-stage infection of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite undergoes repeated rounds of replication, egress, and invasion. Erythrocyte invasion involves specific interactions between host cell receptors and parasite ligands and coordinated expression of genes specific to this step of the life cycle. We show that a parasite-specific bromodomain protein, PfBDP1, binds to chromatin at transcriptional start sites of invasion-related genes and directly controls their expression. Conditional PfBDP1 knockdown causes a dramatic defect in parasite invasion and growth and results in transcriptional downregulation of multiple invasion-related genes at a time point critical for invasion. Conversely, PfBDP1 overexpression enhances expression of these same invasion-related genes. PfBDP1 binds to acetylated histone H3 and a second bromodomain protein, PfBDP2, suggesting a potential mechanism for gene recognition and control. Collectively, these findings show that PfBDP1 critically coordinates expression of invasion genes and indicate that targeting PfBDP1 could be an invaluable tool in malaria eradication.

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