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Sanoudou D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Mountzios G.,251 Airforce General Hospital | Arvanitis D.A.,Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens | Pectasides D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2012

The advent of microarrays over the past decade has transformed the way genome-wide studies are designed and conducted, leading to an unprecedented speed of acquisition and amount of new knowledge. Microarray data have led to the identification of molecular subclasses of solid tumors characterized by distinct oncogenic pathways, as well as the development of multigene prognostic or predictive models equivalent or superior to those of established clinical parameters. In the field of molecular-targeted therapy for cancer, in particular, the application of array-based methodologies has enabled the identification of molecular targets with 'key' roles in neoplastic transformation or tumor progression and the subsequent development of targeted agents, which are most likely to be active in the specific molecular setting. Herein, we present a summary of the main applications of whole-genome expression microarrays in the field of molecular-targeted therapies for solid tumors and we discuss their potential in the clinical setting. An emphasis is given on deciphering the molecular mechanisms of drug action, identifying novel therapeutic targets and suitable agents to target them with, and discovering molecular markers/signatures that predict response to therapy or optimal drug dose for each patient. Source


Linardou H.,Metropolitan Hospital | Briasoulis E.,University of Ioannina | Dahabreh I.J.,Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies | Mountzios G.,251 Airforce General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2011

The KRAS oncogene has been extensively studied for more than three decades, however, it is only recently that it attained a central role in the clinical decision-making process for the practicing oncologist. Recently, based on retrospective analyses of large randomized clinical trials, the use of anti-epidermal growth factor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab, was restricted to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that carry the " wild-type" KRAS genotype. Challenges remain in the laboratory implementation of KRAS mutational testing and the clinical application of the test for treatment planning. This review attempts to offer a global view of KRAS biology, its functional role in cell signaling, mechanisms of resistance to anti-EGFR agents and its predictive potential in metastatic colorectal cancer. We also survey the growing list of candidate biomarkers that may shortly supplement KRAS in routine clinical patient stratification. Finally, we discuss practical aspects of KRAS testing that may be useful for those involved in mutational screening in their centers. This general overview of KRAS for clinical oncology practice aims to assist in data interpretation and offer insight into potential pitfalls of mutational testing. KRAS is a prime example of how translational research can fulfill the promises of personalized medicine for tailoring treatment to match the underlying tumor biology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mavroudis D.,University of Crete | Saloustros E.,Oncology Unit | Malamos N.,Elena Venizelou Hospital | Kakolyris S.,University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Adjuvant trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy improves survival of women with HER2-positive early breast cancer. In this study, we compared 12 versus 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab. Patients and methods: Axillary node-positive or high-risk node-negative women with HER2-positive early breast cancer were randomized to receive 12 or 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab concurrently with dose-dense, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-supported docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 14 days for four cycles). All patients received upfront dose-dense, G-CSF-supported FEC (5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 700 mg/m2 every 14 days for four cycles). Randomization was carried out before commence of chemotherapy. The primary end point was the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). Results: A total of 481 patients were randomized to receive 12 months (n = 241) or 6 months (n = 240) of adjuvant trastuzumab. Chemotherapy was completed in 99% and 98% of patients, while trastuzumab therapy in 100% and 96% of patients in the 12- and 6-month groups, respectively. After 47 and 51 months of median follow-up, there were 17 (7.1%) and 28 (11.7%) disease relapses in the 12- and 6-month groups (P = 0.08). The 3-year DFS was 95.7% versus 93.3% in favor of the 12-month treatment group (hazard ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval 0.86-2.10; P = 0.137). There was no difference in terms of overall survival and cardiac toxicity between the two groups. Conclusions: Our study failed to show noninferiority for the 6-month arm. The results further support the current standard of care that is administration of adjuvant trastuzumab for 12 months. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source


Koutsoukos K.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Mountzios G.,251 Airforce General Hospital
Future Oncology | Year: 2016

Advanced squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma (SqCC) has traditionally been considered the 'neglected sibling' compared with lung adenocarcinoma due to lack of effective targeted treatment options. Currently, limited progress has been made in the systemic treatment of advanced disease and combination chemotherapy remains the gold standard. However, the recent completion of the molecular characterization of SqCC revealed an interestingly complex genomic profile, comprising various genetic alterations that can potentially function as molecular targets for the development of novel targeted agents. Recent encouraging results of the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in several neoplasms has emerged as a promising novel treatment option for advanced SqCC. Future personalized studies, enrolling SqCC patients according to specific driving mutations are underway. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Mountzios G.,251 Airforce General Hospital | Kostopoulos I.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Kotoula V.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Sfakianaki I.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction: Prognosis of patients with operable laryngeal cancer is highly variable and therefore potent prognostic biomarkers are warranted. The insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) signaling pathway plays a critical role in laryngeal carcinogenesis and progression. Patients and Methods: We identified all patients with localized TNM stage I-III laryngeal cancer managed with potentially curative surgery between 1985 and 2008. Immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of IGF1R-alpha, IGF1R-beta and IGF2R was evaluated using the immunoreactive score (IRS) and mRNA levels of important effectors of the IGFR pathway were assessed, including IGF1R, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) and members of the MAP-kinase (MAP2K1, MAPK9) and phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PIK3CA, PIK3R1) families. Cox-regression models were applied to assess the predictive value of biomarkers on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Among 289 eligible patients, 95.2% were current or ex smokers, 75.4% were alcohol abusers, 15.6% had node-positive disease and 32.2% had received post-operative irradiation. After a median follow-up of 74.5 months, median DFS was 94.5 months and median OS was 106.3 months. Using the median IRS as the pre-defined cut-off, patients whose tumors had increased IGF1R-alpha cytoplasm or membrane expression experienced marginally shorter DFS and significantly shorter OS compared to those whose tumors had low IGF1R-alpha expression (91.1 vs 106.2 months, p = 0.0538 and 100.3 vs 118.6 months, p = 0.0157, respectively). Increased mRNA levels of MAPK9 were associated with prolonged DFS (p = 0.0655) and OS (p = 0.0344). In multivariate analysis, IGF1R-alpha overexpression was associated with a 46.6% increase in the probability for relapse (p = 0.0374). Independent predictors for poor OS included node-positive disease (HR = 2.569, p<0.0001), subglottic/transglottic localization (HR = 1.756, p = 0.0438) and IGF1R-alpha protein overexpression (HR = 1.475, p = 0.0504). Conclusion: IGF1R-alpha protein overexpression may serve as an independent predictor of relapse and survival in operable laryngeal cancer. Prospective evaluation of the IGF1R-alpha prognostic utility is warranted. © 2013 Mountzios et al. Source

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