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Davis K.O.,2354 Research Parkway Suite 210 | Davis K.O.,University of Central Florida | Davis K.O.,Central College | Rodgers M.P.,University of Central Florida | And 15 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This article is the second article in a three-part series dedicated to reviewing each process step in crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing process: feedstock and wafering, cell fabrication, and module manufacturing. The goal of these papers is to identify relevant metrology techniques that can be utilized to improve the quality and durability of the final product. The focus of this article is on the cell fabrication process. In this review, the fabrication of c-Si PV cells is divided into four steps: (1) wet chemical processes; (2) emitter formation; (3) anti-reflection coating (ARC) and passivation deposition; and (4) metallization. Each of these processing steps can impact the final reliability and durability of PV modules deployed in the field, and here the failure modes and degradation mechanisms induced during cell manufacturing are explored. Additionally, a literature review of relevant measurement techniques aimed at reducing or eliminating the probability of such failures occurring is presented along with an assessment of potential gaps wherein the PV community could benefit from new research and demonstration efforts. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Seigneur H.,2354 Research Parkway Suite 210 | Seigneur H.,University of Central Florida | Mohajeri N.,2354 Research Parkway Suite 210 | Mohajeri N.,University of Central Florida | And 18 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This article is the first in a three-part series of manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability. Here in Part 1 we focus on the three primary process steps for making silicon substrates for PV cells: (1) feedstock production; (2) ingot and brick production; and (3) wafer production. Each of these steps can affect the final reliability/durability of PV modules in the field with manufacturing metrology potentially playing a significant role. This article provides a comprehensive overview of historical and current processes in each of these three steps, followed by a discussion of associated reliability challenges and metrology strategies that can be employed for increased reliability and durability in resultant modules. Gaps in the current state of understanding in connective metrology data during processing to reliability/durability in the field are then identified along with suggested improvements that should be considered by the PV community. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Davis K.O.,2354 Research Parkway Suite 210 | Davis K.O.,University of Central Florida | Brooker R.P.,2354 Research Parkway Suite 210 | Brooker R.P.,University of Central Florida | And 8 more authors.
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

This work presents the results of a Pareto analysis of critical challenges for emerging manufacturing technologies in c-Si photovoltaics. By soliciting input from members of the PV R&D community, these challenges have been prioritized for six different sub-categories, the first three associated with Processing Challenges and the following three in the area of Metrology Challenges: (1) Feedstock, Crystallization and Wafering; (2) Cell Materials and Processing; (3) Module Integration; (4) Materials and Device Characterization; (5) Reliability and Durability (Measurements); and (6) Modeling and Simulation. Some sub-categories feature a large differential in scoring from the top challenge(s) to lower scored challenges (e.g. Module Integration, Modeling and Simulation), indicating topics of high interest. Other sub-categories feature a more evenly distributed level of prioritization (e.g. Cell Materials and Processing), indicating many high priority challenges within the same area. In total, 14 top critical challenges were identified for the six sub-categories, and a brief review for each of these is provided. As industry and academia seek R&D topics to help push for higher efficiencies and lower cost c-Si modules, this Pareto analysis can hopefully provide some objective insight into areas of high interest for the general PV community. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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