2150 Center Ave

Fort Collins, CO, United States

2150 Center Ave

Fort Collins, CO, United States
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Erdman M.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Creekmore L.H.,2150 Center Ave | Fox P.E.,Eastern Regional Office | Pelzel A.M.,2150 Center Ave | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Contagious equine metritis (CEM) is a highly contagious venereal disease of horses caused by Taylorella equigenitalis. During testing for semen export purposes, a stallion in Kentucky was found to be T. equigenitalis culture positive in December of 2008. This finding triggered an extensive regulatory investigation to search for additional positive horses, determine the extent of the outbreak, identify the potential source of the outbreak, and ultimately return the United States to CEM-free status. The investigation included over 1000 horses located in 48 states. Diagnostic testing found a total of 22 stallions, 1 gelding and 5 mares culture positive for T. equigenitalis. Epidemiologic analysis indicated that all of the positive horses were linked to a single common source, most likely a Fjord stallion imported into the United States in 2000. The T. equigenitalis strain subsequently spread to other stallions via undetermined indirect mechanisms at shared breeding facilities, and to mares via artificial insemination and live breeding. This CEM outbreak and investigation represent the largest ever in the United States based on the number of exposed horses tested and their geographic distribution. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Gove J.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ducey M.J.,University of New Hampshire | Valentine H.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Williams M.S.,2150 Center Ave
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

A new sampling method for down coarse woody debris is proposed based on limiting the perpendicular distance from individual pieces to a randomly chosen sample point. Two approaches are presented that allow different protocols to be used to determine field measurements; estimators for each protocol are also developed. Both protocols are compared via simulation against existing sampling methods that are closely related in terms of theory and field implementation. The new method performed well in comparison to both fixed-area plot and perpendicular distance sampling, and may provide some simplifications in operational field use. © 2012.


Williams M.S.,2150 Center Ave | Ebel E.D.,2150 Center Ave
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Indicator organisms, such as generic Escherichia coli (GEC) and coliforms, can be used to measure changes in microbial contamination during the production of food products. Large and consistent reductions in the concentration of these organisms demonstrates an effective and well-controlled production process. Nevertheless, it is unclear to what degree concentrations of indicator organisms are related to pathogenic organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella on a sample-by-sample basis. If a strong correlation exists between the concentrations of different organisms, then the monitoring of indicator organisms would be a cost-effective surrogate for the measurement of pathogenic organisms. Calculating the correlation between the concentrations of an indicator and pathogenic organism is complicated because microbial testing datasets typically contain a large proportion of censored observations (i.e., samples where the true concentration is not observable, with nondetects and samples that are only screen-test positive being examples). This study proposes a maximum likelihood estimator that can be used to estimate the correlation between the concentrations of indicator and pathogenic organisms. An example based on broiler chicken rinse samples demonstrates modest, but significant positive correlations between the concentration of the indicator organism GEC when compared to the concentration of both Campylobacter and Salmonella. A weak positive correlation was also observed between concentrations of Campylobacter and Salmonella, but it was not statistically significant. © 2014.


Halvorson A.D.,2150 Center Ave | Jantalia C.P.,Embrapa Agrobiology
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2011

Converting to no-till (NT) production can affect N requirements for optimizing corn (Zea mays L.) yields while enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) and N levels. Nitrogen fertilization impacts on irrigated, NT continuous-corn grain, stalk, cob, and stover yields, stover C and N uptake, and C/N ratios were evaluated for 11 yr on a clay loam soil. Changes in SOC and total soil nitrogen (TSN) were also monitored. Grain, stalk, cob, and stover yields increased with increasing N rate, as did N and C uptake. The C/N ratio of stalk residue declined with increasing N rate, but cob C/N ratio was not affected, with an average stover C/N ratio of 68 at the highest N rate. Nitrogen fertilization increased SOC and TSN levels with average SOC and TSN mass rate gains with N application of 0.388, 0.321, and 0.160 Mg SOC ha -1 yr -1 and 0.063, 0.091, and 0.140 Mg TSN ha -1 yr -1 in the 0- to 7.6-,0- to 15.2-, and 0- to 30.4-cm soil depths, respectively. The SOC and TSN mass rate changes were lower without N application. Increases in TSN appeared to be more rapid than SOC, resulting in a decline in the soil C/N ratio with time. Under irrigated, NT continuous corn production, N fertilization optimized grain and residue yields, with the enhanced benefit of increased SOC and TSN levels in the semiarid central Great Plains. Removal of cobs or partial stover residue as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production appears possible without negative effects on soil quality under irrigated, NT corn production. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy.


PubMed | 2150 Center Ave
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2014

Indicator organisms, such as generic Escherichia coli (GEC) and coliforms, can be used to measure changes in microbial contamination during the production of food products. Large and consistent reductions in the concentration of these organisms demonstrates an effective and well-controlled production process. Nevertheless, it is unclear to what degree concentrations of indicator organisms are related to pathogenic organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella on a sample-by-sample basis. If a strong correlation exists between the concentrations of different organisms, then the monitoring of indicator organisms would be a cost-effective surrogate for the measurement of pathogenic organisms. Calculating the correlation between the concentrations of an indicator and pathogenic organism is complicated because microbial testing datasets typically contain a large proportion of censored observations (i.e., samples where the true concentration is not observable, with nondetects and samples that are only screen-test positive being examples). This study proposes a maximum likelihood estimator that can be used to estimate the correlation between the concentrations of indicator and pathogenic organisms. An example based on broiler chicken rinse samples demonstrates modest, but significant positive correlations between the concentration of the indicator organism GEC when compared to the concentration of both Campylobacter and Salmonella. A weak positive correlation was also observed between concentrations of Campylobacter and Salmonella, but it was not statistically significant.


PubMed | 2150 Center Ave
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of wildlife diseases | Year: 2013

To determine if bison (Bison bison) bulls from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Montana, USA, shed an infective dose of Brucella abortus in semen, 50 YNP bulls were captured on public lands in Montana during the winter and early spring (April-May) of 2010 and 2011. The bulls were immobilized, and blood and semen samples were collected for serology and Brucella culture. Thirty-five bulls (70%) were antibody-positive, and B. abortus was cultured from semen in three (9%) of the 35 antibody-positive or suspect bulls, though not at concentrations considered an infective dose. Eight bulls (six antibody-positive, two negative) had palpable lesions of the testes, epididymides, or seminal vesicles consistent with B. abortus infection. Breeding soundness exams and semen analysis suggested that antibody-positive bulls were more likely to have nonviable ejaculate (8/35; 23%) than bulls without detectable antibody (2/15; 13%).


PubMed | 2150 Center Ave
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2013

To identify factors associated with use of a veterinarian by small-scale food animal operations.Cross-sectional descriptive survey.16,000 small-scale farm or ranch operations in all 50 states.Surveys were conducted via mail or telephone during 2011 for small-scale operations (gross annual agricultural sales between $10,000 and $499,999) in which an animal or animal product comprised the highest percentage of annual sales.8,186 (51.2%) operations responded to the survey; 7,849 surveys met the inclusion criteria. For 6,511 (83.0%) operations, beef cattle were the primary animal species. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available 29 miles away; 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Operations for which the nearest veterinarian was 100 miles away or for which a veterinarian was not available were located in 40 US states. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey. Producers with college degrees were significantly more likely to use a veterinarian (675%) versus those who did not complete high school (52.9%).Results of this study indicated most small-scale operations had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011, but there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states.

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