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Patil A.,Manipal University India | Unnikrishnan V.K.,Manipal University India | Ongole R.,Manipal University India | Pai K.M.,Manipal University India | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2015

Oral cancer together with pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with high mortality ratio among all malignancies [1]. Worldwide 450,000 new cases are estimated in 2014[2]. About 90% are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC of the tongue is the most common oral malignancy accounting for approximately 40% of all oral carcinomas. One of the important factors for successful therapy of any malignancy is early diagnosis. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, lack of reliable diagnostic methods for early detection leading to delay in therapy is an important factor responsible for the increase in the mortality rate in various types of cancers. Spectroscopy techniques are extremely sensitive for the analysis of biochemical changes in cellular systems. These techniques can provide a valuable information on alterations that occur during the development of cancer. This is especially important in oral cancer, where "tumor detection is complicated by a tendency towards field cancerization, leading to multi-centric lesions" and "current techniques detect malignant change too late" [3], and "biopsies are not representative of the whole premalignant lesion". [4] © 2015 SPIE. Source


Patil A.,Manipal University India | Prabhu V.,Manipal University India | Choudhari K.S.,Manipal University India | Unnikrishnan V.K.,Manipal University India | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2010

The present work deals with the evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatography laser-induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) technique developed in our laboratory for early detection of oral cancer from protein profiles of body fluids. The results show that protein profiles of serum samples from a given class of samples, say, normal, premalignant, or malignant, are statistically very close to each other, while profiles of members of any class are significantly different from other classes. The performance of the technique is evaluated by the use of sensitivity and specificity pairs, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and Youdens Index. The technique uses protein profile differences in serum samples, registered by the HPLC-LIF technique. The study is carried out using serum samples from volunteers diagnosed as normal or premalignant clinically, and as malignant by histopathology. The specificities and sensitivities of the HPLC-LIF method at an ideal threshold (M-distance = 2) for normal, malignant, and premalignant classes are 100, 69.5, and 61.5%, and 86.5, 87.5%, and 87.5 respectively. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Source


Bhat S.,Manipal University India | Patil A.,Manipal University India | Rai L.,Manipal University India | Kartha V.B.,21 Udayagiri | Santhosh C.,Manipal University India
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2010

Protein profiles of cytologic samples from the cervix were studied using High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) separation combined with ultra-sensitive laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. HPLC-LIF protein profiles of samples from clinically normal subjects, individuals suffering from cervical cancer (different stages), and subjects who had other gynecological problems related to cervix, like erosion of cervix and Nabothian cyst, but no malignancy, were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The application of HPLC-LIF protein profiling combined with PCA was found to be a highly efficient method for discrimination of different classes of samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic accuracy and optimal threshold - decision criterion - for objective discrimination were estimated using sensitivity-specificity pairs and Youden's index (J) plots. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bhat S.,Manipal University India | Kartha V.B.,21 Udayagiri | Rai L.,Manipal University India | Chidangil S.,Manipal University India
Journal of Chromatographic Science | Year: 2015

Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women, progresses silently over long periods before producing any clinical manifestation. Research in early detection of this condition using proteomic techniques is of very recent origin.We used high-performance liquid chromatography combined with laser-induced fluorescence method in our lab to record the protein profiles of tissue homogenate, cell lysate and serum samples of normal and different stages of malignant conditions of the cervix. Information on protein markers in the protein profiles was derived using various data processing methods including curve resolution. The variations in relative intensities of different peaks with respect to peak height, width and area under the curve from different sample types were compared to get information regarding the concentration of the various proteins and their significance in the induction and metastasis of cervical cancer. The method can be used in diagnosis, follow-up with respect to the progression, remission and effective therapy, in cervical malignancy. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Unnikrishnan V.K.,Manipal University India | Nayak R.,Manipal University India | Bernard R.,Manipal University India | Priya K.J.,Manipal University India | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Laser Applications | Year: 2011

Despite the advances in optical technologies for early detection of cancer, routine clinical applications are still not standardized. Among several optical methods, laser-induced fluorescence is a more matured and well understood technique. Still due care has to be taken about various factors to avoid erroneous results. The authors have carried out a systematic study on the effect of the various experimental parameters such as source stability, area of exposure, and angular/distance dependence of a fiber probe, which is used for the fluorescence measurements, from the specimen surface on the spectra. Investigations are carried out on both idealistic cases as well as on tissue surface. The details of the optimization of the parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. © 2011 Laser Institute of America. Source

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