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Palmyra, WI, United States

Scholl C.,200 West Royal Lee Dr. | Eshelman B.D.,University of Wisconsin - Whitewater | Barnes D.M.,200 West Royal Lee Dr. | Hanlon P.R.,200 West Royal Lee Dr.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

The biological activity of cruciferous vegetables is hypothesized to be due to the metabolites of a class of phytochemicals called glucosinolates. The chemical properties of these metabolites, including isothiocyanates, determine the biological activity of these compounds and thus their effects on human health. The 2 primary radish (Raphanus sativusL.) glucosinolates, glucoraphasatin, and glucoraphenin, were isolated using solid phase extraction followed by preparative HPLC purification. In an aqueous environment, 77.6% of the maximum amount of sulforaphene produced by the metabolism of glucoraphenin was present after 24 h. Under the same conditions raphasatin, the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin and the oxidized counterpart of sulforaphene, was highly unstable with a half-life of less than 30 min and no raphasatin was detectable after 24 h. In HepG2 cells, raphasatin-induced quinone reductase activity and the RNA expression of several phase 1 and 2 detoxification enzymes by a significantly greater amount than the degradation products of raphasatin. Raphasatin, but not its degradation products, activated the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably-transfected reporter cell line. Mice fed a diet consisting of 20% freeze dried radishes for 2 wk had significantly higher liver expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, quinone reductase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase α2 than mice fed a nutritionally-matched control diet. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Robbins M.G.,200 West Royal Lee Dr. | Andersen G.,German Research Center for Food Chemistry | Somoza V.,University of Vienna | Eshelman B.D.,University of Wisconsin - Whitewater | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

The bioactive metabolites of glucosinolates, such as isothiocyanates, contained in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to reduce the risk of cancers through the induction of detoxification enzymes. However, cruciferous vegetables are commonly processed before consumption, significantly altering the phytochemical composition of these vegetables. Compared to freeze-dried Brussels sprouts, oven-dried Brussels sprouts contain low concentrations of glucosinolates (22.14 and 0.85 μmol/g, respectively) and isothiocyanates (3.68 and 0.15 μmol/g, respectively). The effect of oven-dried Brussels sprouts on the expression of detoxification enzymes was evaluatedin vitroandin vivo. Treatment of immortalized human hepatoma cells with the aqueous extract from oven-dried Brussels sprouts significantly increased quinone activity (0.5 and 1.5 mg/mL) and the activity of the antioxidant response element (EC50 = 2.39 mg/mL) and xenobiotic response element (EC50 2.92 mg/mL). C3H/HeJ mice fed a diet containing 20% oven-dried Brussels sprout diets for 2 wk demonstrated significantly higher expression than animals fed a nutrient-matched control diet of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and epoxide hydrolase in the liver and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, epoxide hydrolase, UGT1A1, thioredoxin reductase, and heme oxygenase in the lungs. The low concentrations of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in oven-dried Brussels sprouts suggest that other compounds, such as the Maillard reaction products that are produced during heating, are responsible for the induction of detoxification enzymesin vitroandin vivo. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®.

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