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Cameron P.J.,20 Westminster Road | Wigley P.J.,BioDiscovery New Zealand Ltd | Charuchinda B.,BioDiscovery New Zealand Ltd | Walker G.P.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Wallace A.R.,2B West Belt
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2013

Natural populations of Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), also known as tomato/potato psyllid, were marked in potato [Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)] crops using Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) to investigate the impact of dispersal on crop infestation and management of potential insecticide resistance in New Zealand. The technique was adapted from previous studies that used conventional spray applications of Bt to mark Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and identified marked individuals with selective microbiological assays and identification of characteristic crystal inclusions. Initially, marking rates of B. cockerelli were improved by using ultra-low volume applications of undiluted Bt, but this result was not consistent. Several other pests and natural enemies were also marked. In mark-capture studies, marked B. cockerelli were captured over 3 days on yellow sticky traps in small trap plots of potatoes at 60, 120, 180, 250, and 350 m from the sprayed crop. Bactericera cockerelli flight activity occurred throughout daylight hours with evidence of bimodal diurnal peaks. Significantly greater numbers of B. cockerelli were captured in downwind traps. The combined dispersal curve derived from two mark-capture experiments estimated a mean dispersal distance for B. cockerelli of 100 m in 3 days and indicated that 10% of the population dispersed further than ca. 250 m. Over the period of a growing season, this level of dispersal suggests that B. cockerelli can disperse throughout a vegetable-growing region, with implications for crop infestation and management of potential insecticide resistance. © 2013 The Netherlands Entomological Society.


The introduction of the eleven-spotted ladybird Coccinella undecimpunctata to New Zealand in 1874 has been widely quoted as the first importation of an insect for biological control in New Zealand and one of the first anywhere. However, searches of historical records show no evidence that such an introduction was made or attempted. Instead, there is clear evidence that the presently accepted record arose by a process of cumulative misreporting. An account of discussions in the Entomological Society of London in December 1873 about possible introductions of various beneficial insects to New Zealand was misreported by the American entomologist C. V. Riley, and several subsequent authors restated his version with further modifications and additions. This created the record of the introduction of C. undecimpunctata to New Zealand in 1874 that has been accepted and repeated ever since. © The Society for the History of Natural History.


Although the introduction of the ladybird Coccinella undecimpunctata L. in 1874 has been widely quoted as the first introduction of an insect to New Zealand for biocontrol purposes, analysis of published and unpublished historical sources reveals no evidence that such an introduction was ever made or attempted. Instead, there is clear evidence that the presently accepted record of its introduction was created by a process of cumulative misreporting by successive authors. There is no justification for continuing to quote the record of an introduction of C. undecimpunctata to New Zealand in 1874. © 2014, The Entomological Society of New Zealand.


Cameron P.J.,20 Westminster Road | Hill R.L.,New Hill | Teulon D.A.J.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Stufkens M.A.W.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Four species of Aphidius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were deliberately established in New Zealand in the period 1977-1994 for the biological control of pest aphids. Biological control practice and its regulation evolved over this period, so that whereas the evidence required for the 1977 introductions was based on literature records, by 1994 additional experimental or observational information was required. This paper describes the use of no-choice and choice tests conducted in 1996 and 1997 to retrospectively evaluate parasitoid host ranges and it considers if this information would alter the original regulatory decisions. The test species included several native aphids that were unknown at the time of the original parasitoid introductions. Consistent with literature records, the experiments confirmed that Aphidius eadyi Stary, Gonzalez and Hall was specific to its target host, and Aphidius sonchi Marshall was largely specific. Aphidius ervi Haliday and Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stephani-Perez parasitized several test aphid species including cosmopolitan pest species already recorded in the literature, and some native test species. The patterns of mummification of individual test aphids varied greatly. Test aphids in the subfamilies Saltusaphidinae, Calaphidinae and Neophyllaphidinae appeared not to be at risk at all. The native Aphidini species Paradoxaphis plagianthi Eastop appeared to be more susceptible to attack by both A. ervi and A. rhopalosiphi than were P. aristoteliae Sunde or Aphis spp., suggesting that further investigations of P. plagianthi would be a priority if the introduction of these parasitoids were reconsidered now. Because P. plagianthi was not known when A. ervi and A. rhopalosiphi were introduced, prediction of their subsequent host range was limited by knowledge of the aphid fauna at that time. Therefore, reassessments of any decisions to release particular parasitoids would not be altered significantly by tests using knowledge available at the time of their introduction. However, if introduction of these parasitoids were to be considered today there would need to be a greater emphasis on determining their impact on (the recently documented) native aphid species. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Walker G.P.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | MacDonald F.H.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Wallace A.R.,2B West Belt | Cameron P.J.,20 Westminster Road
Biological Control | Year: 2016

Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a polyphagous parasitoid known to have an extremely wide host range, attacking larvae from at least 11 lepidopteran families. It was first detected in New Zealand in 1996 and spread rapidly, raising concerns that it may disrupt an integrated pest management program for Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) that relied on two introduced larval parasitoids: Cotesia kazak and Microplitis croceipes. A series of laboratory experiments was undertaken to assess larval competition among these three parasitoid species. H. armigera larvae were exposed to the three parasitoid species in pairwise combinations and the subsequent formation of parasitoid cocoons and emergence of adults were recorded. Separate assays were run with 0, 24 and 48. h time intervals between ovipositions by each wasp species. The results showed that C. kazak prevailed over M. pulchricornis and M. croceipes in all experimental combinations and time intervals, accounting for 79-100% of parasitoid cocoons, and that M. pulchricornis was similarly dominant over M. croceipes. The observed dominance of C. kazak in processing tomato crops in New Zealand may be partly explained by the competitive advantage of its larvae, combined with a reportedly faster development rate. However, the nature of the competitive relationship between these species may well be modified by extrinsic factors in the field. In particular, M. pulchricornis may gain an advantage in more diverse cropping systems where it may exploit alternative hosts that are not suitable for the other species. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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