20 1 Handa yama

Higashimurayama-shi, Japan

20 1 Handa yama

Higashimurayama-shi, Japan
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Islam M.J.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | Hikosaka K.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | Hikosaka K.,Kitasato Research Center for Environmental Science | Noritake H.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Biomedical Research (Japan) | Year: 2015

Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at risk of developing end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of drugs to inhibit hepatocyte damage and a vaccine against HCV is hampered by the lack of a small animal model. We generated mice in which the viral genome RNA was always present in the hepatocytes using a special transgene. Here we show that the HCV genome RNA transcribed by Pol I polymerase can replicate and produce infectious viruses in mice. We obtained a transgenic mouse with 200 copies per haploid which we named the A line mouse. It produced ~ 3 × 106 HCV RNA copies/mL serum, which is at the comparable level as patients with chronic HCV infection. This mouse was immunotolerant to HCV and showed hepatic steatosis without any necroinfammation at the age of 6 months or hepatocellular carcinoma at the age of 15 months. Thus, the A line mouse can be used as an animal model for chronic HCV infection. This will enable better study of the abnormalities in metabolism and signal transduction in infected hepatocytes, and development of drugs that cure abnormalities. © 2015 Biomedical Research Foundation. All rights reserved.


Seto S.,20 1 Handa yama | Tsujimura K.,20 1 Handa yama | Koide Y.,20 1 Handa yama | Koide Y.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
Traffic | Year: 2011

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is an intracellular pathogen that can replicate within infected macrophages. The ability of M. tb to arrest phagosome maturation is believed to facilitate its intracellular multiplication. Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking, but details of how Rab GTPases regulate phagosome maturation and how M. tb modulates their localization during inhibiting phagolysosome biogenesis remain elusive. We compared the localization of 42 distinct Rab GTPases to phagosomes containing either Staphylococcus aureus or M. tb. The phagosomes containing S. aureus were associated with 22 Rab GTPases, but only 5 of these showed similar localization kinetics as the phagosomes containing M. tb. The Rab GTPases responsible for phagosome maturation, phagosomal acidification and recruitment of cathepsin D were examined in macrophages expressing the dominant-negative form of each Rab GTPase. LysoTracker staining and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Rab7, Rab20 and Rab39 regulated phagosomal acidification and Rab7, Rab20, Rab22b, Rab32, Rab34, Rab38 and Rab43 controlled the recruitment of cathepsin D to the phagosome. These results suggest that phagosome maturation is achieved by a series of interactions between Rab GTPases and phagosomes and that differential recruitment of these Rab GTPases, except for Rab22b and Rab43, to M. tb-containing phagosomes is involved in arresting phagosome maturation and inhibiting phagolysosome biogenesis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | 20 1 Handa yama
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) | Year: 2011

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is an intracellular pathogen that can replicate within infected macrophages. The ability of M. tb to arrest phagosome maturation is believed to facilitate its intracellular multiplication. Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking, but details of how Rab GTPases regulate phagosome maturation and how M. tb modulates their localization during inhibiting phagolysosome biogenesis remain elusive. We compared the localization of 42 distinct Rab GTPases to phagosomes containing either Staphylococcus aureus or M. tb. The phagosomes containing S. aureus were associated with 22 Rab GTPases, but only 5 of these showed similar localization kinetics as the phagosomes containing M. tb. The Rab GTPases responsible for phagosome maturation, phagosomal acidification and recruitment of cathepsin D were examined in macrophages expressing the dominant-negative form of each Rab GTPase. LysoTracker staining and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Rab7, Rab20 and Rab39 regulated phagosomal acidification and Rab7, Rab20, Rab22b, Rab32, Rab34, Rab38 and Rab43 controlled the recruitment of cathepsin D to the phagosome. These results suggest that phagosome maturation is achieved by a series of interactions between Rab GTPases and phagosomes and that differential recruitment of these Rab GTPases, except for Rab22b and Rab43, to M. tb-containing phagosomes is involved in arresting phagosome maturation and inhibiting phagolysosome biogenesis.

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