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In this article, the author discovers a paradox of balancing chemical equations. The many counterexamples illustrate that the considered procedure of balancing chemical equations given in the paper1 is inconsistent. A new complex vector method for paradox resolution is given too.


Risteski I.B.,2 Milepost Place and 606
Materiali in Tehnologije | Year: 2011

In this work are given new paradoxes and fallacies discovered in the theory of balancing chemical reactions. All the counterexamples showed that so-called »chemical procedures« of balancing chemical reactions given in earlier chemical literature are inconsistent. Balancing chemical reactions is a mathematical procedure independent of chemistry. In order to avoid the appearance of paradoxes, chemical reactions must be considered as a formal system founded by virtue of well-defined mathematical model. The results obtained in this work affirmed that the usage of traditional ways of balancing chemical reactions is limited. They may be used only for balancing some elementary chemical equations. In other words, foundation of chemistry looks for a new approach of balancing chemical reactions, which must be completely different than current »chemical procedures«. This work is a collection and analysis of some paradoxes and fallacies which appeared in the theory of balancing chemical reactions.


Risteski I.B.,2 Milepost Place and 606
Materiali in Tehnologije | Year: 2014

In this article we develop a new generalized algebra for the balancing of א chemical reactions. This is a completely new approach to the balancing of these kinds of chemical reactions that is based on an understanding of reaction analysis and the elementary theory of inequalities. The generators of the reaction determined all the interactions among the stoichiometric coefficients.


Risteski I.B.,2 Milepost Place and 606
Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this article are balanced two new very hard chemical reactions which possess atoms with fractional oxidation numbers. Considered chemical reactions belong to the class of chemical reactions which have unique coefficients. These reactions are balanced by the classical algebraic method. The decision to study these chemical reactions was made according to the fact that these reactions cannot be balanced by usage of a computer, because to date is not known any software package. A unique way to balance this class of chemical reactions is the application of mathematical methods. That was the cause that we chose the classical algebraic method for balancing chemical reactions.


Risteski I.B.,2 Milepost Place and 606
Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this article a new formal geometrical method is developed for balancing continuum class chemical reactions. Here are treated new continuum classes of aliphatic hydrocarbon chemical reactions which possess atoms with integer oxidation numbers. All considered continuum reactions are reduced to a set of hyperplanes, which intersection is a hyperline that contains the required coefficients of reactions. Also, particular reactions derived from the general continuum classes are balanced in such a way that they do not lose their continuum properties. To this method is given an advantage, because the so-called chemical ways for balancing chemical reactions are inconsistent. Actually, here offered geometrical method is the first scientific method, which treats chemical reactions as n-dimensional geometric entities. By this method, the author proved again that balancing chemical reactions does not have anything to do with chemistry, because it is a pure mathematical subject.


Risteski I.B.,2 Milepost Place and 606
Journal of the Korean Chemical Society | Year: 2013

In this work is induced a new topology of solutions of chemical equations by virtue of point-set topology in an abstract stoichiometrical space. Subgenerators of this topology are the coefficients of chemical reaction. Complex chemical reactions, as those of direct reduction of hematite with a carbon, often exhibit distinct properties which can be interpreted as higher level mathematical structures. Here we used a mathematical model that exploits the stoichiometric structure, which can be seen as a topology too, to derive an algebraic picture of chemical equations. This abstract expression suggests exploring the chemical meaning of topological concept. Topological models at different levels of realism can be used to generate a large number of reaction modifications, with a particular aim to determine their general properties. The more abstract the theory is, the stronger the cognitive power is.

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