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Okayama-shi, Japan

Nichol A.D.,Monash University | Egi M.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | Pettila V.,Monash University | Bellomo R.,Monash University | And 7 more authors.
Critical Care

Introduction: Higher lactate concentrations within the normal reference range (relative hyperlactatemia) are not considered clinically significant. We tested the hypothesis that relative hyperlactatemia is independently associated with an increased risk of hospital death.Methods: This observational study examined a prospectively obtained intensive care database of 7,155 consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of four Australian university hospitals. We assessed the relationship between ICU admission lactate, maximal lactate and time-weighted lactate levels and hospital outcome in all patients and also in those patients whose lactate concentrations (admission n = 3,964, maximal n = 2,511, and time-weighted n = 4,584) were under 2 mmol.L-1(i.e. relative hyperlactatemia).Results: We obtained 172,723 lactate measurements. Higher admission and time-weightedlactate concentration within the reference range was independently associated with increased hospital mortality (admission odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 3.5, P = 0.01; time-weighted OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.00, P < 0.0001). This significant association was first detectable at lactate concentrations > 0.75 mmol.L-1. Furthermore, in patients whose lactate ever exceeded 2 mmol.L-1, higher time-weighted lactate remained strongly associated with higher hospital mortality (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 12.4, P < 0.001).Conclusions: In critically ill patients, relative hyperlactataemia is independently associated with increased hospital mortality. Blood lactate concentrations > 0.75 mmol.L-1can be used by clinicians to identify patients at higher risk of death. The current reference range for lactate in the critically ill may need to be re-assessed. © 2010 Nichol et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Hara T.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | Otsuka F.,Okayama University of Science | Tsukamoto-Yamauchi N.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | Inagaki K.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Melatonin has been reported to suppress adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion in the anterior pituitary and cortisol production in the adrenal by different mechanisms. However, the effect of melatonin on aldosterone production has remained unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of melatonin in the regulation of aldosterone production using human adrenocortical H295R cells by focusing on the activin system expressed in the adrenal. Melatonin receptor MT1 mRNA and protein were expressed in H295R cells and the expression levels of MT1 were increased by activin treatment. Activin increased ACTH-induced, but not angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced, aldosterone production. Melatonin alone did not affect basal synthesis of either aldosterone or cortisol. However, melatonin effectively enhanced aldosterone production induced by co-treatment with ACTH and activin, although melatonin had no effect on aldosterone production induced by Ang II in combination with activin. These changes in steroidogenesis became apparent when the steroid production was evaluated by the ratio of aldosterone/cortisol. Melatonin also enhanced dibutyryl-AMP-induced aldosterone/cortisol levels in the presence of activin, suggesting a functional link to the cAMP-PKA pathway for induction of aldosterone production by melatonin and activin. In accordance with the data for steroids, ACTH-induced, but not Ang II-induced, cAMP synthesis was also amplified by co-treatment with melatonin and activin. Furthermore, the ratio of ACTH-induced mRNA level of CYP11B2 compared with that of CYP17 was amplified in the condition of treatment with both melatonin and activin. In addition, melatonin increased expression of the activin type-I receptor ALK-4 but suppressed expression of inhibitory Smads6/7, leading to the enhancement of Smad2 phosphorylation. Collectively, the results showed that melatonin facilitated aldosterone production induced by ACTH and activin via the cAMP-PKA pathway. The results also suggested that mutual enhancement of melatonin and activin receptor signaling is involved in the induction of aldosterone output by adrenocortical cells. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved. Source

Kikumoto Y.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | Sugiyama H.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | Sugiyama H.,Center for Chronic Kidney Disease and Peritoneal Dialysis | Inoue T.,2 5 1 Shikata cho | And 10 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease

Human acatalasemia may be a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism by which diabetes is induced is still poorly understood. The impact of catalase deficiency on the onset of diabetes has been studied in homozygous acatalasemic mutant mice or control wild-type mice by intraperitoneal injection of diabetogenic alloxan. The incidence of diabetes was higher in acatalasemic mice treated with a high dose (180 mg/kg body weight) of alloxan. A higher dose of alloxan accelerated severe atrophy of pancreatic islets and induced pancreatic β cell apoptosis in acatalasemic mice in comparison to wild-type mice. Catalase activity remained low in the acatalasemic pancreas without the significant compensatory up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase or superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, daily intraperitoneal injection of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist telmisartan (0.1 mg/kg body weight) prevented the development of alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in acatalasemic mice. This study suggests that catalase plays a crucial role in the defense against oxidative-stress-mediated pancreatic β cell death in an alloxan-induced diabetes mouse model. Treatment with telmisartan may prevent the onset of alloxan-induced diabetes even under acatalasemic conditions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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