Pizzol M.,University of Aalborg |
Weidema B.,University of Aalborg |
Brandao M.,2. 0 LCA Consultants |
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015
Monetary valuation is the practice of converting measures of social and biophysical impacts into monetary units and is used to determine the economic value of non-market goods, i.e. goods for which no market exists. It is applied in cost benefit analysis to enable the cross-comparison between different impacts and/or with other economic costs and benefits. For this reason, monetary valuation has a great potential to be applied also in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), especially in the weighting phase. However, several challenges limit its diffusion in the field, which resulted in only a few applications so far. The authors have performed a review of different monetary valuation methods for use in LCA. Firstly, monetary valuation approaches, methods, and LCA applications were identified. Secondly, key features and the strengths and weaknesses of each monetary valuation method were determined. Finally, monetary valuation methods and LCA applications were evaluated according to a comprehensive set of criteria, ranging from scientific foundation to uncertainty and complexity. It was found that observed- and revealed-preference methods and the abatement cost method have limited applicability in LCA, whereas the choice experiment method and the budget constraint method are the best options for monetary valuation in LCA. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Kjaer L.L.,Technical University of Denmark |
Host-Madsen N.K.,NIRAS |
Schmidt J.H.,2. 0 LCA Consultants |
McAloone T.C.,Technical University of Denmark
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015
An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO) database as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study 2, the approach was used as basis for an Environmental Profit and Loss account for the healthcare company, Novo Nordisk A/S. Case study 3 used the approach for life cycle assessment of a tanker ship. We conclude that EIO-based analyses offer a holistic view of environmental performance, provide a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results, including how to measure and monitor the effect of the different actions. Thus, future research should include more detailed models to support decision-making. © 2015 by the authors.
Merciai S.,2. 0 LCA Consultants |
Heijungs R.,Leiden University |
Heijungs R.,VU University Amsterdam
Ecological Economics | Year: 2014
Input-output tables (IOTs) are widely used in several types of analyses. Although born in an economic context, IOTs are increasingly used for the environmental impact assessment of product systems, e.g. in environmental policy analysis, and for several others such as the accounting of greenhouse gases.However, the use in these contexts does not ensure the validity of the IOT as a consistent and robust multidisciplinary modeling tool in itself. It is in respect to certain basic requirements that IOTs should find their legitimacy. In this paper, we study their validity with respect to a well-established scientific law: the mass balance. Compliance with this basic balance is an important check for data consistency.Following such a track, we focus specifically on monetary input-output tables and we reach the conclusion that IOTs can fail in respecting the basic balance laws whenever prices differ per purchaser. Therefore caution is needed because the estimations in terms of environmental pressures can be biased. The drawback lays in the use of homogeneous prices, which determines a discrepancy in physical units between what is used and what is asked for, within and between activities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Munoz I.,2. 0 LCA Consultants |
Schmidt J.H.,University of Aalborg
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2016
Purpose: The fifth assessment report by the IPCC includes methane oxidation as an additional indirect effect in the global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP) values for methane. An analysis of the figures provided by the IPCC reveals they lead to different outcomes measured in CO2-eq., depending on whether or not biogenic CO2 emissions are considered neutral. In this article, we discuss this inconsistency and propose a correction. Methods: We propose a simple framework to account for methane oxidation in GWP and GTP in a way that is independent on the accounting rules for biogenic carbon. An equation with three components is provided to calculate metric values, and its application is tested, together with the original IPCC figures, in a hypothetical example focusing on GWP100. Results and discussion: The hypothetical example shows that the only set of GWP100 values consistently leading to the same outcome, regardless of how we account for biogenic carbon, is the one proposed in this article. Using the methane GWP100 values from the IPCC report results in conflicting net GHG emissions, thus pointing to an inconsistency. Conclusions: In order to consistently discriminate between biogenic and fossil methane sources, a difference of 2.75 kg CO2-eq. is needed, which corresponds to the ratio of the molecular weights of CO2 and methane (44/16). We propose to correct the GWP and GTP values for methane accordingly. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Bundgaard A.M.,University of Aalborg |
Dalgaard R.,2. 0 LCA Consultants |
Gilbert C.,DuPont Company |
Thrane M.,DuPont Company
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014
The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility-improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial broiler production. The enzyme product which was examined is a combination of xylanase (X), α-amylase (A), and protease (P) developed by Danisco Animal Nutrition (DuPont Industrial Biosciences). XAP facilitates higher inclusion rates in the diet of cheaper and possibly more environmentally friendly feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value. XAP can be used for corn-soybean based diets comprising up to 12% by-products. Two scenarios were compared: one included XAP whereas the other scenario did not include XAP. The potential of XAP to reduce GHG emissions was documented through a GHG assessment based on Life Cycle Assessment principles. Consequential modelling was applied including indirect land use changes (ILUC) and direct land use (LU). The findings showed that XAP facilitated savings in GHG emissions from broiler production in the order of 90 g CO2 eq. per FU. It corresponded to a 5-9% reduction of GHG emissions from broiler production. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results varied substantially, but in all analyses the GHG emissions were reduced. The two most important parameters were: assumptions about the actual changes in the feed formulation and the modelling of ILUC. The two parameters can significantly influence the estimated improvement potential. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.