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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Nouvellon Y.,1CIRAD | Nouvellon Y.,University of Sao Paulo | Laclau J.-P.,1CIRAD | Laclau J.-P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
Tree Physiology | Year: 2012

Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1:1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO2 efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5kg DMm-2), intermediate in MS (12.2kg DMm-2) and highest in E100 (13.9kg DMm-2). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21 lower growth (ΔBw) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23 lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔBw/ANPP and ΔBw/GPP. In contrast, the 28 lower ΔBw in MS than in E100 was explained both by a 15 lower GPP and by a 15 lower fraction of GPP allocated to wood growth, thus partially supporting our second hypothesis: mixing the two species led to shifts in C allocations from above- to belowground, and from growth to litter production, for both species. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Blanchet E.,1CIRAD | Pages C.,1CIRAD | Blondin L.,1CIRAD | Billot C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2010

The Calliptamus genus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) includes locust and grasshopper species, some of which have a high economic impact. Using an enriched methodology, 10 microsatellite markers have been developed from two species, Calliptamus italicus and Calliptamus barbarus. These polymorphic markers were tested on different populations of three Calliptamus species: C. italicus, C. barbarus, C. wattenwylianus. Two markers were amplified on the three species, as well as four on C. barbarus and two on C. italicus. In each species, 9 to 23 alleles per locus were observed. These molecular markers might prove to be a new and interesting tool for Calliptamus population genetics and dispersion studies. Source

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