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Bower A.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Real Hernandez L.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Berhow M.A.,1815 North University Street | De Mejia E.G.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC50 = 16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC50 = 0.43 ± 0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC50 = 0.49 ± 0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC50 = 2.5 ± 0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Hemashettar B.M.,Pvt. Ltd. | Patil R.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College | O'Donnell K.,1815 North University Street | Chaturvedi V.,New York State Department of Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

In this article, we describe a chronic case of rhinofacial mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis, formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis, a rare mycotic agent in humans. The infection caused progressive destruction of the nasal septum and soft and hard palate, leading to collapse of the nose bridge and an ulcerative gaping hole. The mucoralean mold cultured from a nasal biopsy specimen was determined by multilocus DNA sequence data to be conspecific with M. irregularis. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Huang H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Qureshi N.,Bioenergy Research Unit | Qureshi N.,1815 North University Street | Chen M.-H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Chen Y.,Northwestern University | Ntai I.,Northwestern University | Ju K.-S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Unger M.,Northwestern University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2012

Actinobacteria such as streptomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive natural products including nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). The advent of genome sequencing has revealed an even larger genetic repertoire for secondary metabolism with most of the small molecule products of these gene clusters still unknown. Here, we employed a "protein-first" method called PrISM (Proteomic Investigation of Secondary Metabolism) to screen 26 unsequenced actinomycetes using mass spectrometry-based proteomics for the targeted detection of expressed nonribosomal peptide synthetases or polyketide synthases. Improvements to the original PrISM screening approach (Nat. Biotechnol. 2009, 27, 951-956), for example, improved de novo peptide sequencing, have enabled the discovery of 10 NRPS/PKS gene clusters from 6 strains. Taking advantage of the concurrence of biosynthetic enzymes and the secondary metabolites they generate, two natural products were associated with their previously "orphan" gene clusters. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of a proteomics-based strategy for use in screening for NRP/PK production in actinomycetes (often >8 Mbp, high GC genomes) versus the bacilli (2-4 Mbp genomes) used previously. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Rose D.J.,Purdue University | Rose D.J.,1815 North University Street | Patterson J.A.,Purdue University | Hamaker B.R.,Purdue University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Human fecal fermentation profiles of maize, rice, and wheat bran and their dietary fiber fractions released by alkaline-hydrogen peroxide treatment (principally arabinoxylan) were obtained with the aim of identifying and characterizing fractions associated with high production of short chain fatty acids and a linear fermentation profile for possible application as a slowly fermentable dietary fiber. The alkali-soluble fraction from maize bran resulted in the highest short chain fatty acid production among all samples tested, and was linear over the 24 h fermentation period. Size-exclusion chromatography and 1H NMR suggested that higher molecular weight and uniquely substituted arabinose side chains may contribute to these properties. Monosaccharide disappearance data suggest that maize and rice bran arabinoxylans are fermented by a debranching mechanism, while wheat bran arabinoxylans likely contain large unsubstituted xylose regions that are fermented preferentially, followed by poor fermentation of the remaining, highly branched oligosaccharides. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


Maragos C.M.,1815 North University Street
Toxins | Year: 2015

Paxilline (PAX) is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in perennial ryegrass infected with Acremonium lolii. To facilitate screening for this toxin, four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. In competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (CI-ELISAs) the concentrations of PAX required to inhibit signal development by 50% (IC50s) ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 ng/mL. One mAb (2-9) was applied to the detection of PAX in maize silage. The assay was sensitive to the effects of solvents, with 5% acetonitrile or 20% methanol causing a two-fold or greater increase in IC50. For analysis of silage samples, extracts were cleaned up by adsorbing potential matrix interferences onto a solid phase extraction column. The non-retained extract was then diluted with buffer to reduce solvent content prior to assay. Using this method, the limit of detection for PAX in dried silage was 15 μg/kg and the limit of quantification was 90 μg/kg. Recovery from samples spiked over the range of 100 to 1000 μg/kg averaged 106% ± 18%. The assay was applied to 86 maize silage samples, with many having detectable, but none having quantifiable, levels of PAX. The results suggest the CI-ELISA can be applied as a sensitive technique for the screening of PAX in maize silage. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Larson T.M.,1815 North University Street | Kendra D.F.,1815 North University Street | Busman M.,1815 North University Street | Brown D.W.,1815 North University Street
Current Genetics | Year: 2011

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Price N.P.J.,1815 North University Street | Ray K.J.,1815 North University Street | Vermillion K.E.,1815 North University Street | Dunlap C.A.,1815 North University Street | Kurtzman C.P.,1815 North University Street
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

Sophorolipids are a group of O-acylsophorose-based biosurfactants produced by several yeasts of the Starmerella clade. The known sophorolipids are typically partially acetylated 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucopyranose (sophorose) O-β-glycosidically linked to 17-l-hydroxy-Δ9-octadecenoic acid, where the acyl carboxyl group often forms a 4″-lactone to the terminal glucosyl residue. In a recent MALDI-TOFMS-based screen for sophorolipid-producing yeasts we identified a new species, Candida sp. NRRL Y-27208, that produces significant amounts of novel sophorolipids. This paper describes the structural characterization of these new compounds, using carbohydrate and lipid analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. Unlike those reported previously, the NRRL Y-27208 sophorolipids contain an ω-hydroxy-linked acyl group (typically 18-hydroxy-Δ9-octadecenoate), and occur predominantly in a non-lactone, anionic form. In addition, 17 dimeric and trimeric sophoroses were identified by MALDI-TOFMS from this strain. The surfactant-like properties of these sophorolipids have value as potential replacements for petroleum-based detergents and emulsifiers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Price N.P.J.,1815 North University Street | Hartman T.M.,1815 North University Street | Vermillion K.E.,US Foods
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of noncarbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often determined by permethylation analysis, but this can be complicated by high viscosity or poor solubility, resulting in under-methylation. This is a drawback because an under-methylated position may be misinterpreted as the erroneous site of a linkage or substituent. Here, we describe an alternative approach to linkage analysis that makes use of a nonreversible deuterium exchange of C-H protons on the carbohydrate backbone. The exchange reaction is conducted in deuterated water catalyzed by Raney nickel, and results in the selective exchange of C-H protons adjacent to free hydroxyl groups. Hence, the position of the residual C-H protons is indicative of the position of glycosidic linkages or other substituents and can be readily assigned by heteronuclear single quantum coherence-nuclear magnetic resonance (HSQC-NMR) or, following suitable derivatization, by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Moreover, because the only changes to the parent sugar are proton/deuterium exchanges, the composition and linkage analysis can be determined in a single step. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2015, American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


Eller F.J.,National United University | Teel J.A.,National United University | Palmquist D.E.,1815 North University Street
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011

Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a source of decanoic acid which is useful in the preparation of estolide lubricants among other applications. Decanoic acid and other free fatty acids (FFA) can be hydrolyzed from CSO using a catalyst like KOH, followed by neutralization with HCl and extraction with hexane. This procedure, however, uses caustic materials, hazardous solvents and generates waste salt streams. This study investigated the use of water without catalysts to hydrolyze CSO in a continuous flow tubular reactor. Parameters such as the interaction of pressure and temperature, temperature, water to cuphea oil fatty acid residue (H 2O:COFAR) molar ratio, and flow rate were examined. The lowest conversions of CSO to FFA were at the lowest temperature (i.e., 300 °C) and the hydrolysis was ca. 90% at 350 °C and 13.8 MPa and ca. 80% at 365 °C and 13.8 MPa. Hydrolysis increased with pressure and leveled off at 13.8 MPa. Hydrolysis increased with temperature and leveled off at ca. 330 °C. The optimal H 2O:COFAR molar ratio was found to be 6:1. Conversion rates were inversely proportional to flow rate with 95% conversion at the lowest flow rate (i.e., 0.25 mL/min) corresponding to the longest residence time (i.e., ca. 45.2 min). These results demonstrate a continuous subcritical water process for hydrolyzing CSO to FFA that is effective, requires no catalysts and does not generate a waste salt stream. © 2011 AOCS (outside the USA).

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