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Peoria, IL, United States

Bower A.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Real Hernandez L.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Berhow M.A.,1815 North University Street | De Mejia E.G.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC50 = 16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC50 = 0.43 ± 0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC50 = 0.49 ± 0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC50 = 2.5 ± 0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Hemashettar B.M.,Pvt. Ltd. | Patil R.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College | O'Donnell K.,1815 North University Street | Chaturvedi V.,New York State Department of Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

In this article, we describe a chronic case of rhinofacial mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis, formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis, a rare mycotic agent in humans. The infection caused progressive destruction of the nasal septum and soft and hard palate, leading to collapse of the nose bridge and an ulcerative gaping hole. The mucoralean mold cultured from a nasal biopsy specimen was determined by multilocus DNA sequence data to be conspecific with M. irregularis. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Huang H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Qureshi N.,Bioenergy Research Unit | Qureshi N.,1815 North University Street | Chen M.-H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Rose D.J.,Purdue University | Rose D.J.,1815 North University Street | Patterson J.A.,Purdue University | Hamaker B.R.,Purdue University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Human fecal fermentation profiles of maize, rice, and wheat bran and their dietary fiber fractions released by alkaline-hydrogen peroxide treatment (principally arabinoxylan) were obtained with the aim of identifying and characterizing fractions associated with high production of short chain fatty acids and a linear fermentation profile for possible application as a slowly fermentable dietary fiber. The alkali-soluble fraction from maize bran resulted in the highest short chain fatty acid production among all samples tested, and was linear over the 24 h fermentation period. Size-exclusion chromatography and 1H NMR suggested that higher molecular weight and uniquely substituted arabinose side chains may contribute to these properties. Monosaccharide disappearance data suggest that maize and rice bran arabinoxylans are fermented by a debranching mechanism, while wheat bran arabinoxylans likely contain large unsubstituted xylose regions that are fermented preferentially, followed by poor fermentation of the remaining, highly branched oligosaccharides. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

Chen Y.,Northwestern University | Ntai I.,Northwestern University | Ju K.-S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Unger M.,Northwestern University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2012

Actinobacteria such as streptomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive natural products including nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). The advent of genome sequencing has revealed an even larger genetic repertoire for secondary metabolism with most of the small molecule products of these gene clusters still unknown. Here, we employed a "protein-first" method called PrISM (Proteomic Investigation of Secondary Metabolism) to screen 26 unsequenced actinomycetes using mass spectrometry-based proteomics for the targeted detection of expressed nonribosomal peptide synthetases or polyketide synthases. Improvements to the original PrISM screening approach (Nat. Biotechnol. 2009, 27, 951-956), for example, improved de novo peptide sequencing, have enabled the discovery of 10 NRPS/PKS gene clusters from 6 strains. Taking advantage of the concurrence of biosynthetic enzymes and the secondary metabolites they generate, two natural products were associated with their previously "orphan" gene clusters. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of a proteomics-based strategy for use in screening for NRP/PK production in actinomycetes (often >8 Mbp, high GC genomes) versus the bacilli (2-4 Mbp genomes) used previously. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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