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Peoria, IL, United States

Liu Z.,1815 iversity Street
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2013

The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petro-chemical based polymers and resins. This is because of concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non renewable feedstocks. In this study, the polymerization of soybean oil (SBO), epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), and euphorbia oil (EuO) in carbon dioxide (CO2) media (subcritical and supercritical conditions) catalyzed by Lewis acid were reported. The molecular structures of SBO, ESO, and EuO affected the polymerization. It showed that epoxidized plant oils are easier to polymerize than SBO. The resulting polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and gel permeation chromatography. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Source

Peterson S.C.,National United University | Jackson M.A.,National United University | Kim S.,National United University | Palmquist D.E.,1815 iversity Street
Powder Technology | Year: 2012

Biochar produced from corn stover is a renewable, plentiful source of carbon that is a potential substitute for binder/filter media for water or beverage purification applications. However, to be successful in these applications, the surface area of the biochar must be maximized. In this work, a planetary ball mill was used to increase the surface area of the biochar, and various milling parameters were examined to see which had the largest effect on surface area. The weight ratio of milling media to biochar and the mass of solvent used in wet-milling were the most important milling parameters in maximizing surface area, increasing it by a factor of approximately 60 over unmilled biochar. Additionally, the method of salt-assisted dry-milling was tested and found to increase both the total and micropore surface areas of biochar, but not as effectively as wet-milling methods. For salt-assisted milling, a 50:1 mass ratio of YSZ grinding media:NaCl was optimal for maximizing both the total and micropore surface areas of the biochar. © 2012. Source

Asadauskas S.J.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | Biresaw G.,1815 iversity Street | McClure T.G.,TribSys LLC
Tribology Letters | Year: 2010

Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0-20% (w/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests (TCT). Weld points in 4-ball EP and times to failure in TCT at 200 MPa showed that 150 N oil needed more than double treat levels of EP additives to achieve similar boundary lubrication performance as their 5% blends in soy oil. Also, incorporation of 20% soy oil into 150 N oil-based EP additive blends improved the performance to nearly the same level as soy oil only blends of corresponding additives. Boundary lubricity of some soy oil samples was similar to that of a commercial straight oil chlorinated metal forming lubricant. Several suggestions are provided to explain such pronounced influence of the base stock type on EP additive response. The findings suggest that soy oil and other farm-based oils may provide strategies for formulating cost effective industrial fluids and other lubricants. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Winkler-Moser J.K.,National United University | Hwang H.-S.,National United University | Bakota E.L.,National United University | Palmquist D.A.,1815 iversity Street
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Steryl ferulates synthesised from commercial sterols as well as commercial oryzanol were used to better understand how structural features affect antioxidant activity in vitro by the ABTS+ radical decolorization assay, by oxidative stability index (OSI) of soybean oil, and by analysis of antioxidant activity during frying. Steryl ferulates inhibited the ABTS + radical by 6.5-56.6%, depending on their concentration, but were less effective, especially at lower concentrations, than ferulic acid. Ferulic acid and steryl ferulates had either no effect, or lowered the OSI of soybean oil by up to 25%, depending on the concentration. In their evaluation as frying oil antioxidants, steryl ferulates with a saturated sterol group had the best antioxidant activity, followed by sterols with one double bond in the C5 position. The results indicate that a dimethyl group at C4 as well as a C9,C19 cyclopropane group, as found in oryzanol, negatively affects antioxidant activity in frying oils. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Xu Q.,National Food Institute | Nakajima M.,University of Tsukuba | Liu Z.,1815 iversity Street | Shiina T.,National Food Institute
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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