1815 iversity Street

University Park, IL, United States

1815 iversity Street

University Park, IL, United States
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Liu Z.,1815 iversity Street | Erhan S.Z.,1815 iversity Street
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2010

Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF 3OEt 2) in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (PESO) were characterized using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 1H NMR, 13C NMR, solid state 13C NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results indicated that PESO materials were highly crosslinked polymers. They had glass transition temperatures ranging from -16 to -48 °C. TGA results showed the PESO polymers were thermally stable at temperatures up to 220 °C. Decomposition of the polymers was found to occur at temperature greater than 340 °C. GPC results indicated the extracted soluble substances from PESO polymers were ESO dimers, trimers and polymers with low molecular weights. The resulting crosslinked polymers can be converted into hydrogels by chemical modification, such as hydrolysis. These soy based hydrogels will find applications in personal care and health care areas. © 2009 AOCS.

Asadauskas S.J.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | Biresaw G.,1815 iversity Street | McClure T.G.,TribSys LLC
Tribology Letters | Year: 2010

Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0-20% (w/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests (TCT). Weld points in 4-ball EP and times to failure in TCT at 200 MPa showed that 150 N oil needed more than double treat levels of EP additives to achieve similar boundary lubrication performance as their 5% blends in soy oil. Also, incorporation of 20% soy oil into 150 N oil-based EP additive blends improved the performance to nearly the same level as soy oil only blends of corresponding additives. Boundary lubricity of some soy oil samples was similar to that of a commercial straight oil chlorinated metal forming lubricant. Several suggestions are provided to explain such pronounced influence of the base stock type on EP additive response. The findings suggest that soy oil and other farm-based oils may provide strategies for formulating cost effective industrial fluids and other lubricants. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Peterson S.C.,National United University | Jackson M.A.,National United University | Kim S.,National United University | Palmquist D.E.,1815 iversity Street
Powder Technology | Year: 2012

Biochar produced from corn stover is a renewable, plentiful source of carbon that is a potential substitute for binder/filter media for water or beverage purification applications. However, to be successful in these applications, the surface area of the biochar must be maximized. In this work, a planetary ball mill was used to increase the surface area of the biochar, and various milling parameters were examined to see which had the largest effect on surface area. The weight ratio of milling media to biochar and the mass of solvent used in wet-milling were the most important milling parameters in maximizing surface area, increasing it by a factor of approximately 60 over unmilled biochar. Additionally, the method of salt-assisted dry-milling was tested and found to increase both the total and micropore surface areas of biochar, but not as effectively as wet-milling methods. For salt-assisted milling, a 50:1 mass ratio of YSZ grinding media:NaCl was optimal for maximizing both the total and micropore surface areas of the biochar. © 2012.

Liu Z.,1815 iversity Street
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2013

The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petro-chemical based polymers and resins. This is because of concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non renewable feedstocks. In this study, the polymerization of soybean oil (SBO), epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), and euphorbia oil (EuO) in carbon dioxide (CO2) media (subcritical and supercritical conditions) catalyzed by Lewis acid were reported. The molecular structures of SBO, ESO, and EuO affected the polymerization. It showed that epoxidized plant oils are easier to polymerize than SBO. The resulting polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and gel permeation chromatography. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA).

Xu Q.,National Food Institute | Nakajima M.,University of Tsukuba | Liu Z.,1815 iversity Street | Shiina T.,National Food Institute
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Winkler-Moser J.K.,National United University | Hwang H.-S.,National United University | Bakota E.L.,National United University | Palmquist D.A.,1815 iversity Street
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Steryl ferulates synthesised from commercial sterols as well as commercial oryzanol were used to better understand how structural features affect antioxidant activity in vitro by the ABTS+ radical decolorization assay, by oxidative stability index (OSI) of soybean oil, and by analysis of antioxidant activity during frying. Steryl ferulates inhibited the ABTS + radical by 6.5-56.6%, depending on their concentration, but were less effective, especially at lower concentrations, than ferulic acid. Ferulic acid and steryl ferulates had either no effect, or lowered the OSI of soybean oil by up to 25%, depending on the concentration. In their evaluation as frying oil antioxidants, steryl ferulates with a saturated sterol group had the best antioxidant activity, followed by sterols with one double bond in the C5 position. The results indicate that a dimethyl group at C4 as well as a C9,C19 cyclopropane group, as found in oryzanol, negatively affects antioxidant activity in frying oils. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Johnson E.T.,1815 iversity Street | Dowd P.F.,1815 iversity Street
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2016

A quantitative PCR method was developed for detecting Fusarium graminearum growing in maize callus. Fungal DNA was detected 12 h after inoculation (detection limit, 0.2 pg) and was correlated with visual ratings. The method effectively quantified fungal growth in callus overexpressing a peroxidase gene conferring fungal resistance. © 2016

Liu Z.,1815 iversity Street | Erhan S.Z.,1815 iversity Street
Journal of Polymers and the Environment | Year: 2010

The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate in supercritical carbon dioxide medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography analysis confirmed the polymerization had occurred. Parameters affecting the polymerization were studied, which included initiator amount and reaction time. Results show that the longer reaction time, up to 3 h, favored the higher molecular weight of polymers at conditions of 140 °C and initiator BF 3·OEt 2 (2.5 g, 0.018 mol). When reaction time was increased further, the molecular weight of polymers stayed the same or slightly decreased. Increased concentration of initiator gave the higher molecular weight of polymers. The high molecular weight polymers were possibly formed through two path ways: polymerization and intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction. © 2010 United States Department of Agriculture.

Doll K.M.,1815 iversity Street | Bantchev G.B.,1815 iversity Street | Murray R.E.,1815 iversity Street
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2013

Using a catalytic system, methyl oleate is transformed into long-chain keto and diketo derivatives via an epoxide route. Methyl 9(10)-oxooctadecanoate and methyl 9,10-dioxooctadecanoate were made by a ring-opening reaction of epoxidized methyl oleate using bismuth(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate (bismuth triflate) catalyst. Lower reaction temperatures favor the ketone, whereas higher temperatures are required to produce the diketone. The second synthesis also requires the use of dimethylsulfoxide to serve as an oxygen atom donor and that reagent also is needed to keep the catalyst in its active form. The ketone was also evaluated as a lubricity additive in soybean oil, where it was found that it had a minimal effect in reducing wear and did not improve oxidative stability. This drawback, while not good in lubricant formulations, is desirable in many applications such as paint and linoleum production. Also, the structure of the ketone could make it a desirable dielectric fluid, where the water sequestering ability of the carbonyl group would be desirable. Overall, this is an effective synthesis of promising materials, with high biobased content, useful for industries of the future. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Qureshi N.,National United University | Singh V.,Urbana University | Liu S.,1815 iversity Street | Ezeji T.C.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86gL-1 corn stover provided, over 97% of the sugars were released during hydrolysis and these were fermented completely with an ABE productivity of 0.34gL-1h-1 and yield of 0.39. This productivity is higher than 0.31gL-1h-1 when using glucose as a substrate demonstrating that AB could be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Acetic acid that was released from the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis was also used by the culture to produce AB. An average rate of generation of sugars during corn stover hydrolysis was 0.98gL-1h-1. In this system AB was recovered using vacuum, and as a result of this (simultaneous product recovery), 100% sugars were used by the culture. © 2013.

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