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Chennai, India

Rani P.K.,8 College Road | Raman R.,8 College Road | Kulothungan V.,18 College Road | Sharma T.,8 College Road
Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To report the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) and the associated risk factors in type II diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: The study included type II diabetes mellitus subjects who were enrolled from a cross-sectional study. Participants underwent biochemical testing and comprehensive ocular examination including stereo fundus photography. The VI was defined based on the World Health Organization criteria. Results: The prevalence of VI was 4% in the cohort. The risk factors associated with the presence of VI included a female gender, age greater than 60 years, low socio-economic status, hypertension, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, neuropathy, use of insulin and alcohol. Various ocular risk factors are nuclear sclerosis, subjects who have undergone cataract surgery, myopia and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR). After adjusting for the factors using stepwise logistic regression analysis, hypertension, use of alcohol, post-cataract surgery and myopia were not risk factors. Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that VI was higher among subjects older than 60 years (odds ratio (OR): 4.95 [2.67-9.15]) and those who belonged to a low socio-economic status (OR: 2.91 [1.24-6.85]). The systemic risk factors for VI included microalbuminuria (OR: 2.91 [1.59-5.33]), macroalbuminuria (OR: 4.65 [1.57-13.77]) and presence of neuropathy (OR: 1.97 [1.09-3.59]) among subjects. Subjects with nuclear sclerosis (OR: 36.82 [11.12-112.36]) and presence of STDR (OR: 4.17 [1.54-11.29]) were at a higher risk of VI. Cataract was the most common cause of VI in the cohort. Conclusion: Visual impairment, among type II diabetic subjects (4%), is a major public health problem that needs to be addressed. Cataract is the most common reversible cause of vision impairment in this population. Source

Rewri P.,18 College Road | Kakkar M.,Radhaswamy Eye Hospital
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Background: Studies done on the prevalence of glaucoma have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed patients. Late diagnosis is related to increased risk of glaucoma associated with visual disability. Lack of awareness and non-availability of appropriate screening procedures are among the major reasons for non-diagnosis or late diagnosis of glaucoma. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the level of awareness about glaucoma among the North Indian rural population. Materials and Methods: A group-administered, questionnaire-based survey, involving 5000 rural residents (aged 20 and above) was conducted through random sampling. The questionnaire was structured to evaluate the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma and the effect of gender, education status, and glaucoma diagnosis was also studied. The source of awareness about glaucoma was also questioned. Results: Of the 5000 individuals enrolled for the survey, responses from 4927 (98.5%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 98.2 - 98.9) participants, including 3104 males (63%; 95% CI: 61.7 - 64.3) and 1823 females (37%; 95% CI: 35.7 - 38.3) were evaluated. A total of 409 (~8.3%; 95% CI: 7.6 - 9.14) respondents were aware about glaucoma and only 93 (1.89%; 95% CI: 1.55 - 2.31) were qualified as having knowledge about glaucoma as per the set questionnaire. Education was the only variable significantly correlated (P value < 0.001) with the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma out of the parameters included in this study. Close acquaintance with a glaucoma patient was the most common source of information. Conclusions: There is a lack of awareness about glaucoma among the rural residents of North India. The study findings stress the need to spread awareness about glaucoma for prevention of glaucoma-related blindness. © 2005 - Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. Source

Raman R.,18 College Road | Sharma T.,18 College Road
Expert Review of Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this article is to discuss the literature on the clinical role of the ocular fluorophotometer in different ocular conditions. The ocular fluorophotometer measures the fluorescent compounds present in the cornea, lens, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium. These compounds can be present naturally, known as autofluorescent, or fluorescent after application of fluorescein either topically or systemically. The fluorophotometer measures the changes in barrier function in both corneal epithelium and endothelium. It is a quantitative method of detecting a breakdown in the blood-ocular barriers. It helps to measure the inward and outward movements of fluorescein across the blood-retinal barrier as well as blood-aqueous barrier permeability. The measurement of ocular barrier permeability by the fluorophotometer helps to improve our understanding of ocular conditions. It is also useful to assess the effect specific therapeutic approaches in some diseases and clinical research. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Nachiappan K.,18 College Road | Krishnan T.,18 College Road | Madhavan J.,Vision Research Foundation
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

We report a rare case of Bietti's crystalline dystrophy presenting with choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) which was treated with three injections of intravitreal ranibizumab. The CNVM underwent scarring after the injections with stabilization of visual acuity at a follow-up period of 12 months suggesting that intravitreal ranibizumab may have a role in the management of CNVM in these rare cases. Source

Sawant S.D.,18 College Road | Biswas J.,18 College Road
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation | Year: 2010

Purpose: To report a case of fungal scleritis associated with exudative retinal detachment. Design: A rare case report. Methods: Nonresolving fungal scleritis mimicking noninfective scleritis was treated with systemic and topical antifungals and low topical steroids after diagnosis was established on scleral scraping. Even after complete resolution of scleritis, exudative retinal detachment persisted. Results: The patient was advised of a possible need to undergo vitreo retinal surgery if exudative retinal detachment persisted for more than a month after complete resolution of the scleritis component. Conclusion: Infective scleritis must be ruled out in cases of longstanding scleritis not responding to immunosuppressives. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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