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Bells Corners, Canada

A vegetation restoration procedure was developed for open sandy habitats in the Ottawa Valley of Ontario. It was designed to restore a pre-determined plant association and consisted of six steps: (1) determine the restoration objective and role of vegetation; (2) determine the potential natural vegetation of the restoration site based on survey of regional remnants resulting in a list of native species with an indication of their regional status and coefficients of conservatism; (3) determine what vegetation is present on the restoration site resulting in another list of native species with an indication of their regional status and coefficients of conservatism; (4) calculate a floristic quality index (FQI) for the restoration site; (5) based on the soil moisture at the site and the regional survey, develop a potential list, following introduction, of native species, rare native species, and a FQI for the potentially restored site; (6) complete restoration and monitor effectiveness using the target species richness, rare species richness and FQI. Details of these steps are outlined and an example of the process is provided. © 2014 © 2014 Biodiversity Conservancy International. Source


Catling P.M.,170 Sanford Avenue | Kostiuk B.,170 Sanford Avenue
Canadian Field-Naturalist | Year: 2011

To clarify the impact that trails have on orchids we comp ared the occurrence of orchids on the lightly trampled edges of bare trails, with the occurrence of orchids in the surrounding woodland and noted the degree of disturbance. A two-way mixed analysis of variance, using six trails from across Canada, indicated that location by distance strata interaction was lacking. Orchid densities were consistently higher within a few meters of the bare portion of a trail than further away. The width of the disturbance gradient for two well-used trails in parks in Bruce County, Ontario, was determined with regression to be within 1 m from the edge of the bare portion of the trail. Calypso bulbosa var. americana on trails in in Alberta, Epipactis helleborine and Goodyera oblongifolia on trails in Ontario, Goodyera repens on trails in Northwest Territories and all native orchids (cumulatively) on trails on Flowerpot Island, Ontario demonstrated consistent and significant increased abundance within the trail disturbance gradients in comparison to their occurrence in the surrounding forest. More flowering plants of Goodyera oblongifolia and mature capsules of Epipactis helleborine occurred in the trail disturbance gradient than beyond suggesting a beneficial impact on fecundity. The disturbance gradient effect likely includes light trampling which reduces competition, compacts soil, and exposes mineral soil. The effect also includes increased light and microclimate differences near to the path. Landscape managers should recognize that in some situations orchids may benefit greatly from trails and that trails may be better considered as a benefit than as a problem. Source


Catling P.M.,170 Sanford Avenue | Kostiuk B.,170 Sanford Avenue
Canadian Field-Naturalist | Year: 2011

On June 16 and 17, 2010, data were collected on pollination in a population of Galearis rotundifolia at the confluence of the Maligne and Athabasca Rivers north of Jasper, Alberta. The primary pollinator was the bee Osmia proxima and this species was also the most frequent visitor. While most flies were visitors, four species, Eriozona (Megasyrphus) laxus, Eristalis (Eoseristalis) hirta, Eristalis (Eoseristalis) rupium, and Eupeodes (Lapposyrphus) lapponicus also served as pollinators. It is estimated that 25-44% or more of flowers were pollinated in the previous year, a relatively high percentage that supports the "advertisement model" for evolution of food deception in orchids. The pollinating bee or fly lands on the lip and probes the spur which is approximately the same length or longer than the tongue. In the process of pushing into the flower and backing out, the sticky contents of a bursicle are either discharged by the backward movement of a flap or by forward pressure. Either of these actions may release adhesive fluid which fixes the viscidia onto the front of the insect's head. The gradual bending forward of the caudicles reduces likelihood of pollination of consecutively visited flowers with pollen from those recently visited flowers on the same plant (geitonogamous pollination) and thus promotes outcrossing. Source

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