17 W Prospect Road

Colorado City, CO, United States

17 W Prospect Road

Colorado City, CO, United States
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Dreitz V.J.,17 W Prospect Road | Dreitz V.J.,University of Montana | Baeten L.A.,17 W Prospect Road | Baeten L.A.,Colorado State University | And 3 more authors.
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2011

We compared 4 external radiotransmitter attachment techniques to determine the optimum attachment method on chicks of 2 galliform species. The attachment methods included tissue glue, silicone gel, suturing, and leg harness. The study was conducted in captivity with a 2-phase assessment: first with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), and then chukar (Alectoris chukar) chicks. We applied each technique and assessed effects on growth rates, retention times, ease of attaching the transmitter, and effects on physical development. No apparent adverse impacts on chicks were observed for any of the attachment techniques. We found the leg-harness technique was most reliable in terms of retention time, required the least amount of handling time, and was the simplest to administer. Modifications to our suture technique likely would result in similar retention times, but would still require additional handling time and complexity in attaching transmitters. © 2011 The Wildlife Society.


Bergman E.J.,17 W. Prospect Road | Watkins B.E.,300 S. Townsend Avenue | Bishop C.J.,17 W. Prospect Road | Lukacs P.M.,17 W. Prospect Road
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2011

We evaluated the biological and socio-economic effects of statewide limitation of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) hunting licenses, which began in Colorado in 1999. We implemented a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis of annual helicopter sex and age class surveys, collected as part of the Colorado Division of Wildlife's routine monitoring, to assess changes in adult male/adult female ratios and fawn/adult female ratios in response to this change in harvest management. Following statewide limitation and reduction of license sales (1999-2006), we observed increases in adult male/adult female ratios of 7.39 (SE = 2.36) to 15.23 (SE = 1.22) adult males per 100 adult females in moderately limited areas and of 17.55 (SE = 3.27) to 21.86 (SE = 2.31) adult males per 100 adult females in highly limited areas. We simultaneously observed reductions in fawn/adult female ratios in newly limited areas by as much as 6.96 (SE = 2.19) fawns per 100 females, whereas in areas that had previously been limited we observed stabilization of fawn/adult female ratios at levels lower than levels observed under the unlimited harvest management structure. An immediate decline of $7.86 million in annual revenue stemmed from the change in harvest management, but revenue subsequently rebounded. This study provides preliminary evidence of potential effects that other state and provincial wildlife management agencies may face as they consider shifting mule deer harvest management towards limited license scenarios. Copyright © 2011 The Wildlife Society.


Lukacs P.M.,17 W Prospect Road | Lukacs P.M.,University of Montana | Gude J.A.,Montana Fish | Russell R.E.,Montana Fish | Russell R.E.,Jamestown
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2011

Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. © 2011 The Wildlife Society.


Walsh D.P.,Colorado State University | Walsh D.P.,Wildlife Health Program | Stiver J.R.,University of Lincoln | Stiver J.R.,Southeast Region Service Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2010

With the decline of many lekking species, the need to develop a rigorous population estimation technique is critical for successful conservation and management. We employed markresight methods to estimate population size for 2 lekking species: greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus). We evaluated 2 different estimators: Bowden's estimator and the mixed logit-normal markresight model. We captured and marked 75 greater sage-grouse. We counted marked and unmarked birds as they attended 15 known leks. We used 36 and 37 marked Gunnison sage-grouse to estimate population size in 2003 and 2004, respectively. We observed marked and unmarked Gunnison sage-grouse daily as they attended 6 leks in 2003 and 3 leks in 2004. Based on our examination of the assumptions of each markresight estimator, relative to behavior and biology of these species, we concluded the mixed logit-normal markresight model is preferred. We recommend wildlife managers employ markresight approaches when statistically rigorous population estimates are required for management and conservation of lekking species. © 2010 The Wildlife Society.


Dooley J.L.,Colorado State University | Dooley J.L.,Oakwood | Sanders T.A.,17 W Prospect Road | Sanders T.A.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Doherty Jr. P.F.,Colorado State University
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2010

Spatial and temporal closures of anthropogenic activities are a common management strategy to increase waterfowl usage of an area. However, empirical evidence, specifically how individual waterfowl respond to disturbance, is lacking to support their efficacy. We exposed radiomarked mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to walk-in, shooting, or no disturbance along the South Platte River corridor in Colorado, USA, from September to February during 20062007 and 20072008. Mallards exposed to shooting disturbance had greater mean flight distance after disturbance (FDAD) during SeptemberNovember (4.58 km, 95 CI 3.555.62) than DecemberFebruary (3.04 km, 95 CI 2.513.58) and were 35 and 17 greater than mean FDAD of mallards exposed to walk-in disturbance, respectively. Walk-in and shooting disturbance had a similar effect on return rates, and disturbed mallards had higher (0.090.41) movement probabilities away from and lower (0.150.20) probabilities of returning to treatment locations than controls. Probability of presence of disturbed mallards was 37 lower than controls during the daytime but was equal at night. Mallards exposed to walk-in (0.38 95 CI 0.300.46) and shooting (0.23 95 CI 0.170.30 disturbance had low return rates the first afternoon after a disturbance compared to controls (0.71 95 CI 0.650.77). A high proportion of mallards exposed to walk-in (0.75 95 CI 0.670.83) and shooting (0.70 95 CI 0.640.76) disturbance returned to treatment locations in ≤1 day. Managers may be able to more effectively manage disturbance regimes by 1) accounting for surrounding lands within <10 km, especially lands within <5 km, 2) being conscientious when establishing regulations that will affect levels of disturbance 12 days after a previous disturbance, and 3) considering shooting and walking disturbance equally for refuge design. © 2010 The Wildlife Society.


Jachowski D.S.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Brown N.L.,Utah Division of Wildlife Resources | Brown N.L.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Wehtje M.,University of Missouri | And 3 more authors.
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2012

Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a major threat to the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens), a species listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Fleas are the primary vectors of plague, and flea control can stop the spread of plague epizootics and increase Utah prairie dog survival. We evaluated a newly developed grain-bait insecticide treated with the active ingredient imidacloprid. In 2009, we conducted a single application of the product in treatment plots within each of 4 study sites and sampled fleas from captured Utah prairie dogs on treatment and control plots at monthly intervals. We observed mixed results; the product generally was effective at reducing flea prevalence, abundance, and intensity on prairie dogs at some sites and not at others, and the effectiveness within a site varied over time. In 2010, we doubled the amount of bait on treatment plots, yet we still failed to observe a consistent decline in flea prevalence, abundance, and intensity on prairie dogs. At the application rates we evaluated, the imidacloprid product is likely not as effective at controlling fleas on Utah prairie dogs as the more commonly used topical insecticide containing deltamethrin. However, managers should also consider the risk of flea species developing resistance following the repeated application of a single flea-control product. Furthermore, because we observed a higher than expected diversity of flea species (8) on Utah prairie dogs, future work should be undertaken to investigate how other mammalian host species might mediate flea population dynamics, plague ecology, and the outcome of flea management approaches. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.


Ficke A.D.,Colorado State University | Myrick C.A.,Colorado State University | Kondratieff M.C.,17 W. Prospect Road
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

Increased interest in restoring connectivity to fragmented streams has led to the use of PIT tags to measure movement of wild fishes. When used, PIT tags should not overly compromise survival or functional performance, yet there are relatively few studies on the effects of PIT tags on nonsalmonid fishes. As a result, swimming performances, determined by critical swimming velocity, were measured for flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis), creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) subjected to one of the following treatments: control (no surgery or tag), sham (surgery and suture, no tag), small PIT tag (12.5. mm intra-peritoneal PIT tag), and large PIT tag (23. mm intra-peritoneal PIT tag). Swimming performances were tested immediately before tagging, 1 day after tagging, and 6-7 days after tagging. Retention and survival were also measured after 30 days. The sham and PIT tag treatments did not significantly reduce swimming endurance (repeated measures ANOVA, P> 0.05) for any species. Tag retention approached 100% for all three species. Survival did not vary by treatment for flathead chub (100% survival, all treatments), creek chub survival ranged from 65% (large PIT) to 85% (sham), and white sucker survival ranged from 35% (small PIT) to 95% (control). Logistic regression showed that survival of tagged white suckers was not length-dependent. Based on these results, both 23. mm and 12.5. mm PIT tags appear acceptable for tracking flathead chub and creek chub, though future investigators will have to account for higher mortality of creek chub. PIT tags implanted in the intra-peritoneal cavity are not recommended for white suckers in the tested size range (115-140. mm TL); instead, PIT tags could be inserted in dorsal musculature or attached externally, or other marks (visual implant elastomer or alphanumeric tags, Floy tags) could be used. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bishop C.J.,17 W. Prospect Road | Anderson Jr. C.R.,711 Independent Avenue | Walsh D.P.,17 W. Prospect Road | Bergman E.J.,17 W. Prospect Road | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2011

Our understanding of factors that limit mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations may be improved by evaluating neonatal survival as a function of dam characteristics under free-ranging conditions, which generally requires that both neonates and dams are radiocollared. The most viable technique facilitating capture of neonates from radiocollared adult females is use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs). To date, VITs have allowed research opportunities that were not previously possible; however, VITs are often expelled from adult females prepartum, which limits their effectiveness. We redesigned an existing VIT manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Systems (ATS; Isanti, MN) by lengthening and widening wings used to retain the VIT in an adult female. Our objective was to increase VIT retention rates and thereby increase the likelihood of locating birth sites and newborn fawns. We placed the newly designed VITs in 59 adult female mule deer and evaluated the probability of retention to parturition and the probability of detecting newborn fawns. We also developed an equation for determining VIT sample size necessary to achieve a specified sample size of neonates. The probability of a VIT being retained until parturition was 0.766 (SE = 0.0605) and the probability of a VIT being retained to within 3 days of parturition was 0.894 (SE = 0.0441). In a similar study using the original VIT wings (Bishop et al. 2007), the probability of a VIT being retained until parturition was 0.447 (SE = 0.0468) and the probability of retention to within 3 days of parturition was 0.623 (SE = 0.0456). Thus, our design modification increased VIT retention to parturition by 0.319 (SE = 0.0765) and VIT retention to within 3 days of parturition by 0.271 (SE = 0.0634). Considering dams that retained VITs to within 3 days of parturition, the probability of detecting at least 1 neonate was 0.952 (SE = 0.0334) and the probability of detecting both fawns from twin litters was 0.588 (SE = 0.0827). We expended approximately 12 person-hours per detected neonate. As a guide for researchers planning future studies, we found that VIT sample size should approximately equal the targeted neonate sample size. Our study expands opportunities for conducting research that links adult female attributes to productivity and offspring survival in mule deer. © The Wildlife Society, 2011.

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