142 Rogers Rd.

Saskatoon, Canada

142 Rogers Rd.

Saskatoon, Canada
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Leggett M.,Novozymes AS | Diaz-Zorita M.,Monsanto Corporation | Koivunen M.,Newport Corporation | Bowman R.,Novozymes AS | And 3 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2017

Although the relevance of biological N nutrition of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is recognized worldwide, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum shows variable results and the benefit needs to be validated under current crop production practices. We conducted statistical analysis of soybean field trial data to provide insight into factors affecting the efficacy of soybean inoculation under contrasting crop production conditions. Most experimental sites, 187 trials in the United States and 152 trials in Argentina, were in soils with soybean history and naturalized B. japonicum strains. Yield increases were greater in Argentina (190 kg ha–1 equivalent to 6.39%) than in the United States (60 kg ha–1 equivalent to 1.67%). Tillage methods did not affect inoculant performance. In the United States, inoculation was more effective in soils with higher pH (>6.8) while in Argentina the greatest inoculation effect on crop production occurred in soils with a lower pH (<5.5). In the United States, where most of the trials were in rotation with corn (Zea mays L), the greatest positive effect of inoculation was observed in late planted soybean crops and independent of soil organic matter (SOM). In Argentina, the inoculant had its greatest effect in soils with no soybean history, a relatively high SOM, higher levels of soil extractable P and S, and in areas with greater precipitation during early reproductive growing stages. In both regions, the yield increases due to B. japonicum inoculation support the regular use of this practice to help provide adequate conditions for soybean production. © 2017 by the American Society of Agronomy.

Irvine R.B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | McConnell J.,3830 Thatcher Ave. | Lafond G.P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | May W.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 5 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2010

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivars commonly grown in western Canada have been developed primarily for seed production. These cultivars tend to be shorter, have lower fibre content, and have lower above-ground biomass than cultivars developed specifically for fibre production. Linseed production is the dominant flax product in western Canada and fibre is a co-product of oilseed production. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the effects of northern European fibre flax production practices under western Canadian soil and climatic conditions. Anumber of cultivars in narrow band and solid-seeded planting geometries to determine if they had similar responses. When flax was planted at recommended seeding rates for linseed production, seed and fibre yields were not affected by planting geometry. Increasing the seeding rate from 40 to 120 kg ha-1 did not affect seed yield regardless of location or seeding date. Even though fibre content was not affected by seeding rate, higher seeding rates increased stem numbers, decreased stem size, reduced the variability in stem size and increased fibre yield. Delaying planting until the end of May increased fibre yields by an average of 35% with no corresponding decrease in seed yield. Since the relative seed and fibre yield responses of a wide range of cultivars were similar with solid seed and narrow band planting geometries, plant breeders can effectively select for higher fibre producing lines using narrow band seed openers using row spacings up to 30 cm apart.

Turkington T.K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | O'Donovan J.T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Harker K.N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Xi K.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development AARD | And 9 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2015

There is interest in mixing herbicides with a half-rate of fungicide at herbicide timings for barley in western Canada. At six sites across the Canadian prairies from 2010 to 2012 combinations of herbicide and the fungicide Tilt® (propiconazole) were applied to barley at the two- to three-leaf stage (herbicide and half-rate fungicide), five- to six-leaf stage (herbicide and half-rate fungicide), and/or the flag leaf stage (full or half-rate fungicide only). Each plot area was cross-seeded with tame oat as a model weed prior to seeding. Upper canopy leaf samples were collected for leaf disease assessment at the early dough growth stage. Weed biomass, and grain yield and quality were determined. Total leaf area diseased (a combination of scald, both forms of net blotch and spot blotch) was greater for the two- to three- or five- to six-leaf stage herbicide-only treatments and the combination herbicide and half-rate fungicide treatments compared with fungicide at the flag leaf stage. Yield, 1000-kernel weight, kernel plumpness and test weight were greatest and kernel thins lowest for treatments with a flag leaf stage fungicide application. Split applications of fungicide at the time of herbicide application and at flag leaf emergence did not improve disease management and crop productivity compared with a single full rate fungicide application at the flag leaf stage. Weed biomass was generally not influenced by the treatments because weed control was excellent at all sites. However, yield was lower when herbicide was applied at the five- to six-leaf versus the two- to three-leaf stage. For improved leaf disease management and yield in barley, fungicide applications should include a flag leaf stage timing for adequate protection of upper canopy leaves, which are key contributors to yield and grain filling. Delaying herbicide application to the five- to six-leaf stage in an attempt to accommodate a fungicide application reduces barley yield due to early-season weed interference. © 2015 (publisher name) All rights reserved.

Fernandez M.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Fox S.L.,DL Inc | Hucl P.,University of Saskatchewan | Singh A.K.,Iowa State University | Stevenson F.C.,142 Rogers Rd.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2014

A 3-yr field study (2010 to 2012) was conducted in the Brown soil zone of southwest Saskatchewan to determine the reactions of common, durum and spelt wheat cultivars currently registered in western Canada, and of Kamut wheat, to common root rot (CRR) under organic management. The genotypes selected for this study are often grown by organic producers in this region. Over the 3 yr of this study, Cochliobolus sativus, the main causal agent of CRR, was the fungus most frequently isolated from discoloured subcrown internodes, followed by Fusarium spp. The latter constituted an overall total of over 19% of all isolations and consisted of at least 12 different species, the most frequently detected of which were F. equiseti, F. avenaceum, F. acuminatum and F. oxysporum. The relative prevalence of the most commonly isolated genera/ species agrees most closely with previous studies conducted under organic management. In general, C. sativus was less common in Kamut than in durum and spelt wheat, and it was more frequently isolated from durum than common wheat. In contrast, there were few differences in the isolation of Fusarium spp. among wheat species. Their isolation was greater for common wheat and Kamut than for durum wheat. For all 3 yr, the greatest mean CRR severity was observed in spelt wheat, followed by durum wheat and Kamut, with common wheat having the lowest average severity. For individual cultivars, the durum wheat AC Avonlea, Kyle and Transcend had the greatest CRR severity of all cultivars in this species and CDC Verona the lowest. Common wheat cultivars AC Elsa, CDC Kernen and Red Fife had the greatest CRR severity and Superb and Unity the lowest severity within their species. Under organic conditions, avoiding growing cultivars with high susceptibility to CRR is recommended given the expected presence of this disease in most fields and environments.

Turkington T.K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Beres B.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kutcher H.R.,University of Saskatchewan | Irvine B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 7 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2016

Poor stand establishment resulting in lower yield is a major constraint to expanding winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) land area across the semiarid temperate regions of the northern Great Plains. We conducted a direct-seeded study at nine sites across western Canada totaling 26 environments (site-years) over three growing seasons (2011–2013) to observe the responses of the winter wheat cultivar CDC Buteo to five levels of seed treatment (i) Check–no seed treatment, (ii) tebuconozole [(RS)- 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H, 1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan- 3-ol], (iii) metalxyl {2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-(2-methoxy-1-oxoethyl) amino} propanoic acid methyl ester], (iv) imidacloprid (N-{1-[(6-Chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl}nitramide), and (v) dual fungicide/insecticidal seed treatment: tebuconozole, + metalxyl + imidacloprid; and two levels of fall-applied fungicide (i) Check–no application or (ii) foliar-applied prothioconazole {2-[2-(1-chlorocyclopropyl)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione} performed in mid-October. The check and the fungicide seed treatment, metalaxyl, produced similarly low grain yield resulting in lower net returns, whereas the dual fungicide/insecticide seed treatment provided the highest yield and net returns (CAN+$13 ha–1). Fall-applied fungicide improved yield (0.06 Mg ha–1), but decreased net returns (–~12 ha–1). Plant density increased slightly (13 plants m–2) when seed treatments included the insecticide component, imidacloprid. Fall foliar fungicides generally improved spring plant density; however, no benefit was observed in seed treatments containing imidacloprid. Greater yield and plant stand stability was observed with fall-applied foliar fungicide applications; however, fall foliar would be cost prohibitive. The benefits of a fall foliar fungicide application requires further exploration in the context of an added input or as an alternative to a spring application as the net returns of a fall foliar compared to no application in the system render the input cost-prohibitive. © 2016 by the American Society of Agronomy.

Fernandez M.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Stevenson C.F.,142 Rogers Rd | Hodge K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dokken-Bouchard F.,Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2016

The leaf spotting (LS) complex is a widespread wheat (Triticum spp.) disease across the Canadian Prairies. A 12-yr survey (2001– 2012) was conducted in commercial fields across Saskatchewan, Canada to quantify LS and pathogen prevalence by wheat species, soil zone, latitude, longitude, previous crop/tillage, and climate. Leaf spotting severity was greater in durum than bread wheat. Pyrenophora tritici-repentis had the greatest percentage occurrence and frequency of isolation. Percentage isolation of this pathogen and Cochliobolus sativus was greater in durum than bread wheat, while the reverse was true for Phaeosphaeria nodorum. Responses of wheat species to previous crop/tillage were not consistent. Bread wheat in the Brown soil zone had lower LS, and C. sativus levels, than in the other two soil zones, no other pathogen was significantly affected by soil zone. For bread wheat, going northward and eastward increased LS severity, going eastward decreased P. tritici-repentis levels, going northward and eastward increased P. nodorum, while going south, and to a lesser extent east, increased C. sativus. Wet and warm conditions, particularly in the last years of this survey, and the presence of P. nodorum and C. sativus, were responsible for greater LS severity. Overall, P. tritici-repentis was associated with warmer and drier conditions, and could not explain LS severity. Greater precipitation and temperature, especially in the last 3 yr (2010–2012), coincided with greater LS and C. sativus levels. Therefore, under higher precipitation and temperatures, C. sativus can become an important leaf pathogen in the western Prairies, especially in durum wheat. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

Qin S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Qin S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Craig Stevenson F.,142 Rogers Rd | McKenzie R.H.,Research and Innovation Division | Beres B.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2014

Environmentally Smart Nitrogen (ESN) (Agrium, Calgary, AB) is a polymer-coated form of urea N that provides controlled-release, allowing higher seed-placed safe rates. Field studies were conducted from 2009 to 2012 near Lethbridge, AB, Canada, to determine how upper limits of seed safety using seed-placed ESN in cereals and canola change with increased N rates and alterations to the coating integrity of ESN. Alterations to the coating integrity of ESN were created in the laboratory (consistent within an incremental range of 20 to 80% N release after 7 d immersion in 23°C water) and then arranged in a factorial combination with five rates (30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 kg N ha-1) of the seed-placed ESN lots and urea (100% N release). Low N release rates (20-40%) were important for all three crops and increased the safe rate of seed-placed ESN to the optimum range of 60 to 90 kg N ha-1 for spring cereals and 60 kg N ha-1 for canola. This confirms three times the safe rate of urea (observed at 30 kg N ha-1 for cereals) can be seed-placed and achieve N sufficiency for spring wheat in one operation. Canola stand establishment was negatively affected by greater N release and rates. However, reductions to canola yield were modest (5%) unless ESN was replaced with urea, which reflects its greater compensatory response to stand thinning. Results from this study confirm the substitution of urea with ESN allows 3× rates of seed-placed N provided N release was ≤40%, which is readily achieved through proper handling. © 2014 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved.

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