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Bedford, MA, United States

A pressure differential is applied across a mold sheet and a semiconductor (e.g. silicon) wafer (e.g. for solar cell) is formed thereon. Relaxation of the pressure differential allows release of the wafer. The mold sheet may be cooler than the melt. Heat is extracted almost exclusively through the thickness of the forming wafer. The liquid and solid interface is substantially parallel to the mold sheet. The temperature of the solidifying body is substantially uniform across its width, resulting in low stresses and dislocation density and higher crystallographic quality. The mold sheet must allow flow of gas through it. The melt can be introduced to the sheet by: full area contact with the top of a melt; traversing a partial area contact of melt with the mold sheet, whether horizontal or vertical, or in between; and by dipping the mold into a melt. The grain size can be controlled by many means.


A pressure differential can be applied across a mold sheet and a semiconductor (e.g. silicon) wafer (e.g. for solar cell) is formed thereon. Relaxation of the pressure differential can allow release of the wafer. The mold sheet may be cooler than the melt. Heat is extracted through the thickness of the forming wafer. The temperature of the solidifying body is substantially uniform across its width, resulting in low stresses and dislocation density and higher crystallographic quality. The mold sheet can allow flow of gas through it. The melt can be introduced to the sheet by: full area contact with the top of a melt; traversing a partial area contact of melt with the mold sheet, whether horizontal or vertical, or in between; and by dipping the mold into a melt. The grain size can be controlled by many means.


Patent
1366 Technologies | Date: 2012-08-22

Acid etch compositions for etching multicrystalline silicon substrates are disclosed which may include hydrofluoric acid, an oxidizer, an acid diluent, and soluble silicon. The soluble silicon may be hexafluorosilicic acid or ammonium fluorosilicate. Silicon substrates patterned with organic resist may be used with the acid etch compositions for selective silicon patterning for solar cell applications.


A method for imparting a pattern to a flowable resist material on a substrate entails providing a resist layer so thin that during a stamp wedging process, the resist never completely fills the space between the substrate and the bottom surface of a stamp between wedge protrusions, leaving gap everywhere therebetween. A gap remains between the resist and the extended surface of the stamp. If the resist layer as deposited is somewhat thicker than the targeted amount, it will simply result in a smaller gap between resist and tool. The presence of a continuous gap assures that no pressure builds under the stamp. Thus, the force on the protrusions i determined only by the pressure above the stamp and is well controlled, resulting in well-controlled hole sizes. The gap prevents resist from being pumped entirely out of any one region, and thus prevents any regions from being uncovered of resist. The stamp can be pulsed in its contact with the substrate, repeatedly deforming the indenting protrusions. Several pulses clears away any scum layer better than does a single press, as measured by an etch test comparison of the degree to which a normal etch for a normal duration etches away substrate material. A method for imparting a pattern to a flowable resist material on a substrate entails providing a resist layer so thin that during a stamp wedging process, the resist never completely fills the space between the substrate and the bottom surface of a stamp between wedge protrusions, leaving a gap everywhere therebetween. A gap remains between the resist and the extended surface of the stamp.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 1366 Technologies | Date: 2014-01-16

Patterned substrates for photovoltaic and other uses are made by pressing a flexible stamp upon a thin layer of resist material, which covers a substrate, such as a wafer. The resist changes phase or becomes flowable, flowing away from locations of impression, revealing the substrate, which is subjected to some shaping process. A typical substrate is silicon, and a typical resist is a wax. Workpiece textures include extended grooves, discrete, spaced apart pits, and combinations and intermediates thereof. Platen or rotary patterning apparatus may be used. Rough and irregular workpiece substrates may be accommodated by extended stamp elements. Resist may be applied first to the workpiece, the stamp, or substantially simultaneously, in discrete locations, or over the entire surface of either. The resist dewets the substrate completely where desired.

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