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Gleason F.H.,University of Sydney | Carney L.T.,Sandia National Laboratories | Lilje O.,University of Sydney | Glockling S.L.,135 Brodrick Road
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2012

Parasites in the Phylum Cryptomycota and their hosts in the Phyla Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Oomycota have commonly been observed in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Although rDNA sequence data from environmental samples suggest a wide genetic diversity for the Cryptomycota, Rozella is the only genus described in this group. The species of Rozella which have been studied in the laboratory are biotrophs and have stages with simple morphological characteristics in their life cycles. The life cycles consist of uniflagellate zoospores, thalli which are unwalled, endobiotic protoplasts, and sometimes walled resting spores. These parasites are secondary consumers in producer and detritus based food chains. Species of Rozella efficiently transfer carbon and energy from their hosts (primary consumers) to grazing zooplankton and other tertiary consumers. It is likely that they fine-tune the dynamics of food chains and increase the complexity of food webs. However, there are no quantitative data available at present to support this hypothesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. Source

Glockling S.L.,135 Brodrick Road | Marshall W.L.,University of British Columbia | Gleason F.H.,University of Sydney
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2013

The Mesomycetozoea (Ichthyosporea) includes a group of fungus-like microorganisms which diverged near the animal fungus divide and is basal to the animal lineage in the Opisthokont supergroup. The composition of species within this group has changed considerably since it was reviewed by Mendoza etal. in 2002. There have been many additions to the group as a result of phylogenetic sequencing, and new species have been discovered following examination of digestive tracts of arthropods and other groups of invertebrates. Furthermore, ecological surveys and environmental sampling have revealed a high diversity of Mesomycetozoean phylotypes in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Initially considered a group comprising mainly fish parasites, the Mesomycetozoea are now known to live in association with a wide range of host organisms including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. Here we review the Mesomycetozoea and examine the broad spectrum of its ecology in the light of recent research based on sequence data, cultivation and in vivo studies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. Source

Beakes G.W.,Northumbria University | Glockling S.L.,135 Brodrick Road | Sekimoto S.,University of British Columbia
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Molecular sequencing has helped resolve the phylogenetic relationships amongst the diverse groups of algal, fungal-like and protist organisms that constitute the Chromalveolate "superkingdom" clade. It is thought that the whole clade evolved from a photosynthetic ancestor and that there have been at least three independent plastid losses during their evolutionary history. The fungal-like oomycetes and hyphochytrids, together with the marine flagellates Pirsonia and Developayella, form part of the clade defined by Cavalier-Smith and Chao (2006) as the phylum "Pseudofungi", which is a sister to the photosynthetic chromistan algae (phylum Ochrophyta). Within the oomycetes, a number of predominantly marine holocarpic genera appear to diverge before the main "saprolegnian" and "peronosporalean" lines, into which all oomycetes had been traditionally placed. It is now clear that oomycetes have their evolutionary roots in the sea. The earliest diverging oomycete genera so far documented, Eurychasma and Haptoglossa, are both obligate parasites that show a high degree of complexity and sophistication in their host parasite interactions and infection structures. Key morphological and cytological features of the oomycetes will be reviewed in the context of our revised understanding of their likely phylogeny. Recent genomic studies have revealed a number of intriguing similarities in host-pathogen interactions between the oomycetes with their distant apicocomplexan cousins. Therefore, the earlier view that oomycetes evolved from the largely saprotrophic "saprolegnian line" is not supported and current evidence shows these organisms evolved from simple holocarpic marine parasites. Both the hyphal-like pattern of growth and the acquisition of oogamous sexual reproduction probably developed largely after the migration of these organisms from the sea to land. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Molloy D.P.,Albany State University | Glockling S.L.,135 Brodrick Road | Beakes G.W.,Northumbria University | James T.Y.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2014

The oomycete genus Aquastella is described to accommodate two new species of parasites of rotifers observed in Brooktrout Lake, New York State, USA. Three rotifer species - Keratella taurocephala, Polyarthra vulgaris, and Ploesoma truncatum - were infected, and this is the first report of oomycete infection in these species. Aquastella attenuata was specific to K. taurocephala and Aquastella acicularis was specific to P. vulgaris and P. truncatum. The occurrence of infections correlated with peak host population densities and rotifers were infected in the upper layers of the water column. Sequencing of 18S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis of both species placed them within the order Saprolegniales, in a clade closely related to Aphanomyces. The Aquastella species were morphologically distinct from other rotifer parasites as the developing sporangia penetrated out through the host body following its death to produce unique tapered outgrowths. Aquastella attenuata produced long, narrow, tapering, finger-like outgrowths, whilst A. acicularis produced shorter, spike-like outgrowths. We hypothesize that the outgrowths serve to deter predation and slow descent in the water column. Spore cleavage was intrasporangial with spore release through exit tubes. Aquastella attenuata produced primary zoospores, whereas A. acicularis released spherical primary aplanospores, more typical of other genera in the Aphanomyces clade. © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Source

Hyde K.D.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Hyde K.D.,World Agroforestry Center | Hyde K.D.,Mae Fah Luang University | Hyde K.D.,King Saud University | And 47 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2014

Many fungi are pathogenic on plants and cause significant damage in agriculture and forestry. They are also part of the natural ecosystem and may play a role in regulating plant numbers/density. Morphological identification and analysis of plant pathogenic fungi, while important, is often hampered by the scarcity of discriminatory taxonomic characters and the endophytic or inconspicuous nature of these fungi. Molecular (DNA sequence) data for plant pathogenic fungi have emerged as key information for diagnostic and classification studies, although hampered in part by non-standard laboratory practices and analytical methods. To facilitate current and future research, this study provides phylogenetic synopses for 25 groups of plant pathogenic fungi in the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mucormycotina (Fungi), and Oomycota, using recent molecular data, up-to-date names, and the latest taxonomic insights. Lineage-specific laboratory protocols together with advice on their application, as well as general observations, are also provided. We hope to maintain updated backbone trees of these fungal lineages over time and to publish them jointly as new data emerge. Researchers of plant pathogenic fungi not covered by the present study are invited to join this future effort. Bipolaris, Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeria, Botrytis, Choanephora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Diplodia, Dothiorella, Fusarium, Gilbertella, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Neofusicoccum, Pestalotiopsis, Phyllosticta, Phytophthora, Puccinia, Pyrenophora, Pythium, Rhizopus, Stagonosporopsis, Ustilago and Verticillium are dealt with in this paper. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

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