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Dyer J.A.,122A Hexam Street | Desjardins R.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Karimi-Zindashty Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | McConkey B.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

The energy consumption and fossil CO2 emissions from the Canadian vegetable greenhouse industry were assessed using greenhouse statistics from 2002 to 2007. The fossil CO2 emissions were compared to the fossil CO2 emitted during transport of an equal weight of food by truck and by airplane from two horticultural production centers in the southern USA to four locations in Canada. The calculations in this paper for Canadian greenhouse energy use for heating were verified against farm energy use survey data collected from greenhouse operators in 1996. Allowing for extrapolations to 1996 from the 2002 to 2007 period, the survey data were underestimated by 12%. Since the survey data were not corrected for possible household energy use by greenhouse operators, some underestimation in the heat energy calculations was expected. The fossil CO2 emissions from Canadian greenhouses were 0.35Tg. This estimate is about twice as high as the diesel fuel CO2 emissions required to truck the same weight of vegetables from south to north, but only slightly less than half the CO2 emissions to ship the same vegetables by air. Quebec greenhouse crops had the lowest CO2 emission intensity and the least difference with trucking CO2 emissions, while BC greenhouse crops had the highest CO2 emission intensity and the most difference with trucking CO2 emissions. The study revealed some potential CO2 mitigation practices including alternative fuels such as straw pellets or wood chips, non-recycle-able combustible urban waste and biogas from city waste treatment facilities or manure storage systems. Mitigation of heat energy loss could involve insulating heating lines within greenhouses and doorway designs that minimize the time and area open to the outside air. In order to reduce the CO2 emission intensity, research should aim at a higher ratio of yield to fossil energy use, rather than simply trying to maximize greenhouse yields. © 2011 International Energy Initiative.

Shrestha B.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Desjardins R.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | McConkey B.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Worth D.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the production stage of a bioenergy crop is essential for evaluating its eco-efficiency. The objective of this study was to calculate the change in GHG emissions for canola (Brassica napus L.) production on the Canadian Prairies from 1986 to 2006. Net GHG emissions in the sub-humid and semi-arid climatic zones were estimated for fallow-seeded and stubble-seeded canola in intensive-, reduced- and no-tillage systems, with consideration given to emissions associated with synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer input, mineralized N from crop residues, N leaching and volatilization, farm operations, the manufacturing and transportation of fertilizer, agrochemicals and farm machinery, and emission and removal of CO2 associated with changes in land use (LUC) and land management (LMC). The GHG emissions on an area basis were higher in stubble-seeded canola than in fallow-seeded canola but, the opposite was true on a grain dry matter (DM) basis. Nitrous oxide emissions associated with canola production, CO2 emissions associated with farm energy use and the manufacturing of synthetic N fertilizer and its transportation contributed 49% of the GHG emissions in 1986 which increased to 66% in 2006. Average CO2 emissions due to LUC decreased from 27% of total GHG emissions in 1986 to 8% in 2006 and soil C sequestration due to LMC increased from 8% to 37%, respectively. These changes caused a reduction in net GHG emission intensities of 40% on an area basis and of 65% on a grain DM basis. Despite the reduction in GHG emission intensities, GHG emissions associated with canola in the Prairies increased from 3.4TgCO2equiv in 1986 to 3.8TgCO2equiv in 2006 because of the more than doubling of canola production. © 2013.

Dyer J.A.,122A Hexam Street | Verge X.P.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Desjardins R.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Worth D.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | McConkey B.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2010

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of the 21 major field crops in Canada were 16.8 Tg CO2e of N2O and 17.2 Tg of fossil fuel CO2 in 2006. The mean GHG emission intensity on an area basis for these crops was 1.0Mg of CO2e per ha. On a dry matter (DM) basis, the mean GHG emission intensity was 0.33Mg of CO2e Mg-1 DM. For western Canada, the GHG emission intensity was 0.35 MgCO2e Mg-1 DM and 0.30 MgCO2e Mg-1 DM for eastern Canada. The sensitivity of the GHG emissions to crop-specific GHG emission intensities was demonstrated by examining two biodiesel scenarios. The biodiesel share of the diesel fuel blend was 2% in the first scenario (B2) and 5% in the second scenario (B5). The increased feedstock was assumed to come from canola and soybeans. The B2 scenario increased the emission intensity for western Canada to 0.38 MgCO2e Mg-1 DM and the B5 scenario to 0.43 MgCO2e Mg-1 DM. Neither scenario had any appreciable effect on the magnitude of the emission intensity for eastern Canada. The GHG emissions from the canola-dominated western Canadian field crops were increased by the B2 and B5 fuel blend scenarios. In the soybean-dominated east, the two scenarios resulted in decreased GHG emissions from field crops. Canola-based biodiesel potentially eliminates more petrodiesel CO2 emissions than soybean biodiesel. However, for both scenarios, the net potential GHG reductions (petrodiesel offset plus change in GHG emissions from field crops) were 2.60 MgCO2e ha-1 of additional oilseeds in the east and 0.94 MgCO2e ha-1 in the west. The higher meal by-product from soybean oil meant a smaller loss of livestock feed for eastern Canada. © 2010.

Dyer J.A.,122A Hexam Street | Verge X.P.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kulshreshtha S.N.,University of Saskatchewan | Desjardins R.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mcconkey B.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Sustainable Agriculture | Year: 2011

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canada's four main livestock industries were integrated with the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA) which operates at the census district level. The livestock crop complex (LCC), which defines the crop area required to feed Canada's livestock, was disaggregated from provincial to district level. The LCC areas were subtracted from the crop areas stored in the CEEMA database to define the maximum area available for non-meat food, fiber, and biofuel feedstock production. The resulting nonlivestock residual (NLR) area estimates were 18.7 Mha in the west (excluding rangeland, summerfallow, irrigated cropland and any crops not associated with livestock diets) and 1.0 Mha in the east. The GHG emissions from the NLR in the west were 13.7 Tg CO2e,or 30% of the total GHG emissions from those crops associated with livestock diets. The 1.6 Tg CO2e of GHG from the NLR in Eastern Canada represented 8% of the total GHG emissions from those livestock-related crops. The eastern NLR crop areas were more sensitive to changes in livestock populations than the Western Canada NLR areas because of the more dominant role of livestock production in eastern Canadian agriculture than in the west. The totalagricultural GHG emissions budget showed direct but muted sensitivity to changes in Canadian livestock populations in both eastern and Western Canada. The methodology will link agricultural GHG emissions with district level land use decisions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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