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Sun D.,120 Veterans Boulevard | Ye Q.,Amgen | Yan X.,120 Veterans Boulevard | Rew Y.,120 Veterans Boulevard | And 7 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

In this letter, we reported the design and synthesis of three potent, selective, and orally bioavailable 11β-HSD1 inhibitors labeled with 14C: AMG 456 (1), AM-6949 (2), and AM-7715 (3). We evaluated the covalent protein binding of the labeled inhibitors in human liver microsomes in vitro and assessed their potential bioactivation risk in humans. We then studied the in vitro mechanism of 2 in human hepatocytes and the formation of reactive intermediates. Our study results suggest that 1 and 3 have low potential for metabolic bioactivation in humans, while 2 has relatively high risk. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Hu E.,Amgen | Andrews K.,Amgen | Chmait S.,Amgen | Zhao X.,120 Veterans Boulevard | And 12 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

We report the discovery of novel imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines as potent and selective inhibitors of PDE10A. The investigation began with our recently disclosed ketobenzimidazole 1, which exhibited single digit nanomolar PDE10A activity but poor oral bioavailability. To improve oral bioavailability, we turned to novel scaffold imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine 2, which not only retained nanomolar PDE10A activity but was also devoid of the morpholine metabolic liability. Structure-activity relationship studies were conducted systematically to examine how various regions of the molecule impacted potency. X-ray cocrystal structures of compounds 7 and 24 in human PDE10A helped to elucidate the key bonding interactions. Five of the most potent and structurally diverse imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines (4, 7, 12b, 24a, and 24b) with PDE10A IC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 6.7 nM were advanced into receptor occupancy studies. Four of them (4, 12b, 24a, and 24b) achieved 55-74% RO at 10 mg/kg po. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Shin Y.,120 Veterans Boulevard | Suchomel J.,120 Veterans Boulevard | Cardozo M.,120 Veterans Boulevard | Duquette J.,120 Veterans Boulevard | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Lead optimization efforts resulted in the discovery of two potent, selective, and orally bioavailable PI3Kδ inhibitors, 1 (AM-8508) and 2 (AM-9635), with good pharmacokinetic properties. The compounds inhibit B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) in PI3Kδ-dependent in vitro cell based assays. These compounds which share a benzimidazole bicycle are effective when administered in vivo at unbound concentrations consistent with their in vitro cell potency as a consequence of improved unbound drug concentration with lower unbound clearance. Furthermore, the compounds demonstrated efficacy in a Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) study in rats, where the blockade of PI3Kδ activity by inbibitors 1 and 2 led to effective inhibition of antigen-specific IgG and IgM formation after immunization with KLH. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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