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West Jordan, UT, United States

Vennin E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Olivier N.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Olivier N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Brayard A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 8 more authors.

The Lower Triassic Mineral Mountains area (Utah, USA) preserves diversified Smithian and Spathian reefs and bioaccumulations that contain fenestral-microbialites and various benthic and pelagic organisms. Ecological and environmental changes during the Early Triassic are commonly assumed to be associated with numerous perturbations (productivity changes, acidifica-tion, redox changes, hypercapnia, eustatism and temperature changes) post-dating the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. New data acquired in the Mineral Mountains sediments provide evidence to decipher the relationships between depositional environments and the growth and distribution of microbial structures. These data also help to understand better the controlling factors acting upon sedimentation and community turnovers through the Smithian-early Spathian. The studied section records a large-scale depositional sequence during the Dienerian(?)-Spathian interval. During the transgression, depositional environments evolved from a coastal bay with continental deposits to intertidal fenestral-microbial limestones, shallow subtidal marine sponge-microbial reefs to deep subtidal mud-dominated limestones. Storm-induced deposits, microbialite-sponge reefs and shallow subtidal deposits indicate the regression. Three microbialite associations occur in ascending order: (i) a red beds microbialite association deposited in low-energy hypersaline supratidal conditions where microbialites consist of microbial mats and poorly preserved microbially induced sedimentary structure; (ii) a Smithian microbialite association formed in moderate to high-energy, tidal conditions where microbialites include stromatolites and associated carbonate grains (oncoids, ooids and peloids); and (iii) a Spathian microbialite association developed in low-energy offshore conditions that is preserved as multiple decimetre thick isolated domes and coalescent domes. Data indicate that the morphologies of the three microbialite associations are controlled primarily by accommodation, hydrodynamics, bathymetry and grain supply. This study suggests that microbial constructions are controlled by changes between trapping and binding versus precipitation processes in variable hydrodynamic conditions. Due to the presence of numerous metazoans associated with microbialites throughout the Smithian increase in accommodation and Spathian decrease in accommodation, the commonly assumed anachronistic character of the Early Triassic microbialites and the traditional view of prolonged deleterious conditions during the Early Triassic time interval is questioned. © 2015 International Association of Sedimentologists. Source

Monnet C.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Bucher H.,University of Zurich | Brayard A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Jenks J.F.,1134 Johnson Ridge Lane
Fossil Record

Globacrochordiceras transpacificum gen. et sp. nov. is an ammonoid (Ammonoidea, Cephalopoda) with a shell characterized by plicate ribbing (rounded and undulating ribs strengthening on the venter without interruption), increasing involution through ontogeny, overhanging and deep umbilical wall, absence of tuberculation, subtriangular whorl section, globose adult shape with a closed umbilicus followed by an abrupt egressive coiling, and a subammonitic adult suture line. This new taxon occurs in Nevada (USA) and in Guangxi (South China). It has its typical occurrence within the Neopopanoceras haugi Zone of late Spathian age (Early Triassic). The plicate ribbing, suture line and general shell shape are diagnostic of the family Acrochordiceratidae. The large adult size, high degree of involution and subammonitic suture line of Globacrochordiceras markedly contrast with the next younger genus of the family (Paracrochordiceras of early Anisian age, Middle Triassic), which is evolute and displays a ceratitic suture shape. Shell coiling and suture line of Globacrochordiceras are closer to that of the youngest member of the family: Acrochordiceras carolinae (late middle Anisian). The latter is the end-member of a long-term morphological evolutionary trend of the family during the early and middle Anisian. This trend composed of classical increases in adult size (Cope's rule), shell involution and suture indentation, lasted ca. four Myr. The sudden morphological evolutionary jump between Globacrochordiceras and Paracrochordiceras at the Spathian/Anisian (Early/Middle Triassic) boundary may correspond to a generalized morphological reset of long-term trends, a process that differs from classic paedomorphic transformations. A dramatic global sea level change and carbon isotope positive excursion at the Early/Middle Triassic boundary both indicate stressful environmental changes that may have triggered this evolutionary jump. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Lucas S.G.,New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science | Jenks J.F.,1134 Johnson Ridge Lane | Spielmann J.A.,New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
Geological Society Special Publication

The Triassic chronostratigraphic scale was built on two centuries of research on ammonoid biostratigraphy and biochronology. Two Triassic stage bases and all of the Triassic substages are currently defined by ammonoid bioevents. The study of Triassic ammonoids began during the late 1700s, and in 1895, Edmund von Mojsisovics, Wilhelm Waagen and Carl Diener published an essentially complete Triassic chronostratigraphic scale based on ammonoid biostratigraphy. This scale introduced many of the Triassic stage and substage names still used today, and all terminology of stages and substages subsequently introduced has been based on ammonoid biostratigraphy. Early Triassic ammonoids show a trend from cosmopolitanism (Induan) to latitudinal differentiation (Olenekian), and the four Lower Triassic substage (Griesbachian, Dinerian, Smithian and Spathian) boundaries are globally correlated by widespread ammonoid biotic events. Middle Triassic ammonoids have provinciality similar to that of the Olenekian and provide a basis for recognizing six Middle Triassic substages. Late Triassic ammonoids provide a basis for recognizing three stages divided into five substages. The main uncertainty for the future of Triassic ammonoid biostratigraphy is not the decline of the ammonoids as a tool for dating and correlation of Triassic strata but, rather, the dramatic decrease in the number of specialists, due to the lack of replacement of experienced palaeontologists who started their activity in the 1950s and 1960s. © The Geological Society of London 2010. Source

Ware D.,University of Zurich | Jenks J.F.,1134 Johnson Ridge Lane | Hautmann M.,University of Zurich | Bucher H.,University of Zurich
Swiss Journal of Geosciences

A well-preserved ammonoid fauna of Early Dienerian age has long been known from the lower portion of the Candelaria Formation in the old Candelaria silver mining district in Mineral and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada, but for a number of reasons, this fauna has never been studied in detail nor illustrated. Previous authors assigned this ammonoid fauna to the Early Dienerian Proptychites candidus Zone of Canada. In reality, it more closely resembles the Tethyan faunas than the higher palaeolatitude Canadian faunas, thus indicating the presence of some degree of equatorial faunal exchange between opposite sides of the Panthalassic Ocean during Early Dienerian time. It also indicates the onset of a provincialism, which contrasts with the cosmopolitan Griesbachian faunas. A rigorous taxonomic analysis of the Candelaria fauna allows us to differentiate the following ten species, which include two new species and one new genus (Mullericeras nov. gen.) belonging to the new family Mullericeratidae: Ambites lilangensis (Krafft, 1909), Ambites aff. radiatus (Brühwiler, Brayard, Bucherand Guodun, 2008), Ussuridiscus sp. indet., "Koninckites" aff. kraffti Spath, 1934, Mullericeras spitiense (Krafft, 1909), Mullericerasfergusoni nov. sp., Mullericeras sp. indet., Proptychites haydeni (Krafft, 1909), Proptychites pagei nov. sp., Vavilovites sp. indet. and Parahedenstroemia kiparisovae Shigetaand Zakharov, 2009. This Early Dienerian fauna correlates with the Ambites fauna known from the base of the Ceratite Marls in the Salt Range and from the base of the "Meekoceras" beds in Spiti (northern Gondwanian margin). The fauna also permits the precise dating of a shelfal anoxic episode on the equatorial North American margin. This anoxic event correlates in time with similar palaeoceanographic changes in the southern Tethys, which indicates that the Early Triassic biotic recovery was at least partly shaped by such discrete, short events rather than by pervasive and lingering adverse environmental conditions. © 2011 Swiss Geological Society. Source

Goudemand N.,University of Zurich | Orchard M.J.,Geological Survey of Canada | Bucher H.,University of Zurich | Jenks J.,1134 Johnson Ridge Lane

The First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Chiosella timorensis has been recently proposed as an index for the worldwide recognition of the Olenekian-Anisian Boundary (OAB, Early-Middle Triassic boundary). We here report the co-occurrence of C. timorensis with the ammonoids Neopopanoceras haugi (Hyatt and Smith), Keyserlingites pacificus (Hyatt and Smith), Subhungarites yatesi (Hyatt and Smith) and Pseudacrochordiceras inyoense (Smith), which are diagnostic of the late Spathian Haugi Zone. This shows that the previously published first occurrences of C. timorensis were still too poorly constrained, and it questions the adequacy of its FAD as a marker of the OAB. It challenges the significance of some observed lower stratigraphic occurrences of C. gondolelloides compared with C. timorensis. We revise the current criterion for the taxonomic separation of these two species and define a new Chiosella species (left in open nomenclature). The origin of Chiosella timorensis remains unknown but multi-element analyses suggest an affinity with the late Olenekian Neogondolella ex gr. regalis. Our reassessment of the material from the most important OAB sections (Desli Caira, Romania and Guandao, China) allows us to propose a new and more reliable biochronological scheme based on conodont maximal associations for the OAB. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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