111 Washington St. SE

Bothell, WA, United States

111 Washington St. SE

Bothell, WA, United States

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Larson A.J.,University of Montana | Lutz J.A.,Utah State University | Donato D.C.,111 Washington St. SE | Freund J.A.,University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2015

Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a threedecade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young (<60-year-old) and old-growth (>300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that densitydependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time. © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America.


Lindenmayer D.B.,Australian National University | Franklin J.F.,University of Washington | Lohmus A.,University of Tartu | Baker S.C.,University of Tasmania | And 14 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2012

Approximately 85% of the global forest estate is neither formally protected nor in areas dedicated to intensive wood production (e.g., plantations). Given the spatial extent of unprotected forests, finding management approaches that will sustain their multiple environmental, economic, and cultural values and prevent their conversion to other uses is imperative. The major global challenge of native forest management is further demonstrated by ongoing steep declines in forest biodiversity and carbon stocks. Here, we suggest that an essential part of such management-supplementing the protection of large reserves and sensitive areas within forest landscapes (e.g., aquatic features)-is the adoption of the retention approach in forests where logging occurs. This ecological approach to harvesting provides for permanent retention of important selected structures (e.g., trees and decayed logs) to provide for continuity of ecosystem structure, function, and species composition in the postharvest forest. The retention approach supports the integration of environmental, economic, and cultural values and is broadly applicable to tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, adaptable to different management objectives, and appropriate in different societal settings. The widespread adoption of the retention approach would be one of the most significant changes in management practice since the onset of modern high-yield forestry. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Hatten T.D.,Invertebrate Ecology Inc. | Looney C.,111 Washington St. SE | Strange J.P.,Utah State University | Bosque-Perez N.A.,University of Idaho
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2013

Bumble bees, Bombus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae:), are dominant pollinators in the northern hemisphere, providing important pollination services for commercial crops and innumerable wild plants. Nationwide declines in several bumble bee species and habitat losses in multiple ecosystems have raised concerns about conservation of this important group. In many regions, such as the Palouse Prairie, relatively little is known about bumble bee communities, despite their critical ecosystem functions. Pitfall trap surveys for ground beetles in Palouse prairie remnants conducted in 2002-2003 contained considerable by-catch of bumble bees. The effects of landscape context, remnant features, year, and season on bumble bee community composition were examined. Additionally, bees captured in 2002-2003 were compared with historic records for the region to assess changes in the presence of individual species. Ten species of bumble bee were captured, representing the majority of the species historically known from the region. Few detectable differences in bumble bee abundances were found among remnants. Community composition differed appreciably, however, based on season, landscape context, and elevation, resulting in different bee assemblages between western, low-lying remnants and eastern, higherelevation remnants. The results suggest that conservation of the still species-rich bumble bee fauna should take into account variability among prairie remnants, and further work is required to adequately explain bumble bee habitat associations on the Palouse.


Miller S.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Raphael M.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Falxa G.A.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Strong C.,Crescent Coastal Research | And 8 more authors.
Condor | Year: 2012

We document here a decline of nearly 30% in the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) population of washington, Oregon, and northern California between 2000 and 2010. The Northwest forest Plan is an ecosystem-management plan for federal forest lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that incorporates monitoring to determine if species' conservation objectives are met. To evaluate the plan's effectiveness in conserving populations of the murrelet, a species associated with older, late-successional forests, we estimated the murrelet's density in near-shore marine waters of washington, Oregon, and northern California south to San francisco bay. we sampled annually, using line transects and distance estimation. we divided the study area of about 8800 km2 into fve geographic subareas corresponding to existing murrelet-conservation zones. Annual population estimates for the plan ranged from an estimated 23 700 (95% CI: 18 300 to 29 000) birds in 2002 to a low of 16 700 (95% CI: 13 100 to 20 300) in 2010, representing an average rate of decline of 3.7% annually (95% CI: -4.8 to -2.7%) from 2001 to 2010. This annual rate suggests a total decline of about 29% during this period. we documented downward trends for washington (conservation zone 1) and for the outer coast of washington (conservation zone 2). These declines coincide with reductions in the amount of nesting habitat. further research to evaluate the potential marine and terrestrial factors responsible for the declines is planned. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2012.


Raphael M.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Shirk A.J.,University of Washington | Falxa G.A.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Pearson S.F.,111 Washington St. SE
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2015

The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a seabird in the family Alcidae that forages in nearshore waters of the Pacific Northwest, and nests in adjacent older-forest conifers within 80. km offshore. The species is of conservation concern due to habitat loss and declining numbers, and is listed as Threatened in British Columbia, Canada and in the United States portion of its range south of Canada. Recent monitoring in the United States indicated that murrelet numbers continued to decline there, especially in the waters of Washington State. To better understand this decline, and to inform conservation planning for the species, we evaluated how terrestrial and marine factors influence the distribution and abundance of the murrelet in coastal waters, including whether at-sea hotspots of murrelet abundance exist. Murrelet at-sea abundance and distribution were determined by surveys conducted annually from 2000 to 2012 in coastal waters from the United States-Canada border south to San Francisco Bay. We summarized mean and variance of murrelet density at the scale of 5-km segments of coastal waters throughout this area. We used a boosted regression tree analysis to investigate the contributions of a suite of marine and terrestrial attributes to at-sea murrelet abundance in each segment. We observed several regional hotspots of higher murrelet abundance at sea. Terrestrial attributes made the strongest contribution, especially the amount and cohesiveness of suitable nesting habitat in proximity to each segment, whereas marine attributes explained less of the spatial and temporal variations in murrelet abundance. At-sea hotspots of murrelet abundance therefore reflect not only suitable marine foraging habitat but primarily the proximity of suitable inland nesting habitat. © 2014.


Looney C.,111 Washington St. SE | Zack R.S.,Washington State University | LaBonte J.R.,35 Capitol Street NE
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in southcentral Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. © C. Looney et al.


Looney C.,111 Washington St. SE | Smith D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Collman S.J.,Washington State University | Langor D.W.,Natural Resources Canada | Peterson M.A.,Western Washington University
Journal of Hymenoptera Research | Year: 2016

Examination of museum specimens, unpublished collection data, and field surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014 resulted in records for 22 species of sawflies new to Washington State, seven of which are likely to be pest problems in ornamental landscapes. These data highlight the continued range expansion of exotic species across North America. These new records also indicate that our collective knowledge of Pacific Northwest arthropod biodiversity and biogeography is underdeveloped, even for a relatively well known and species-poor group of insects. Notable gaps in the knowledge of Washington State's Symphyta remain for the Olympic Peninsula, the Cascade Mountain Range, and the arid interior of the state. Washington's shrub-steppe appears to be particularly poorly surveyed for sawflies.


Carson H.S.,111 Washington St. SE | Ulrich M.,111 Washington St. SE | Lowry D.,111 Washington St. SE | Pacunski R.E.,111 Washington St. SE | Sizemore R.,111 Washington St. SE
Fisheries Research | Year: 2016

The San Juan Archipelago is the most intensely fished region of Washington State for echinoderms. Commercial dive fisheries for both the California sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) and red sea urchin (Mesocentrotus franciscanus) were characterized by high levels of harvest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Here we evaluate stock performance of both species under the current fishery management regime using biomass estimates from a remotely-operated vehicle survey, time series of relative abundance from SCUBA index station surveys, and harvester log book data. We also report habitat associations of both species with depth and seafloor substrate composition. The fully-utilized quota for Parastichopus represents an 11.4% annual harvest rate on the current harvestable biomass estimate, and signs that this rate is unsustainable include: low density in shallow waters, a relative abundance that has remained depressed, and a continuous decline in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE). Abundant Parastichopus below harvestable depths may not be of sufficient density to act as a consistent reservoir to replenish the shallows with recruits. The partially-utilized quota for Mesocentrotus represents a 3.9% annual harvest rate on the current biomass estimate, relative abundance has increased from a recent low, and there is no trend in CPUE. Numerous similarities between the two fisheries with regard to fleet composition and harvest history, coupled with diverging stock status, suggest that the sea cucumber fishery may be slower to recover from over-exploitation. Despite the challenges of co-managing the fisheries among several stakeholder groups, agreement has been reached to improve the long term viability of the Parastichopus fishery using reduced harvest quotas and a closure during peak spawning months, and to continue to closely monitor the Mesocentrotus fishery. © 2016 .


Looney C.,111 Washington St. SE | Eigenbrode S.D.,University of Idaho
Natural Areas Journal | Year: 2012

The Palouse Prairie of eastern Washington State and adjacent northern Idaho is an endangered ecosystem. Like other arable North American grasslands, the prairie was mostly converted to agriculture in the late 1800s, and native habitat is today highly fragmented within a matrix of production agriculture. Government and conservation groups are beginning conservation action in the region, but lack information regarding the number and nature of the prairie remnants. We used high-resolution aerial photography to identify potential prairie remnants in the southern half of the Palouse and describe their physical characteristics. We found that although there are many potential remnants, they tend to be small (most less than 2 ha) and have high perimeter-area ratios. Potential remnants are disproportionately found on rocky and shallow soils in the region, with only a few located on the deepest, most agriculturally valuable soil types. The remnants occur predominantly in a few large clusters near rivers and rocky buttes, and over half are within 150 m of the next nearest remnant. Almost all remnants are privately owned. The high number and clustered distribution of the remnants suggest a conservation strategy for the Palouse may be based on developing a network of small reserves. This may be best implemented at the county level through outreach efforts and partnerships with private landowners.


PubMed | 111 Washington St SE, Utah State University and University of Hawaii at Hilo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental entomology | Year: 2016

Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of nontarget species (bycatch) plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectiveness by reducing the available space for target species and increasing trap screening time, especially in areas where thousands of insects are captured as bycatch in a given season. Additionally, bycatch may negatively impact local nontarget insect populations, including beneficial predators and pollinators. Here, we tested the effect of pheromone lures on bycatch rates of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Apoidea (Hymenoptera), and nontarget Lepidoptera. Multicolored (primarily yellow and white) bucket traps containing a pheromone lure for capturing one of three survey target species, Spodoptera litura (F.), S. littoralis (Boisduval), or Helicoverpa armigera (Hbner), were placed in alfalfa and corn fields, and compared to multicolored traps without a pheromone lure. All-green traps with and without H. armigera lures were employed in a parallel study investigating the effect of lure and trap color on bycatch. Over 2,600 Coccinellidae representing seven species, nearly 6,400 bees in 57 species, and >9,000 nontarget moths in 17 genera were captured across 180 traps and seven temporal sampling events. Significant effects of lure and color were observed for multiple taxa. In general, nontarget insects were attracted to the H. armigera lure and multicolored trap, but further studies of trap color and pheromone lure specificity are needed to better understand these interactions and to minimize nontarget captures.

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