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Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington | Yoon H.S.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Kim H.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Sun L.,Victoria University of Wellington | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Phycology | Year: 2011

The phylogeny of morphologically simple algae is problematic due to insufficient morphological characters to aid in distinguishing species and relationships. The problem is further compounded because multiple evolutionary lineages of morphologically similar species occur in most well-sampled biogeographic locations; therefore, location cannot be used as a proxy for species. The phylogeny of the upright members of the Erythropeltidales is partially clarified by combining molecular data, unialgal culture observations, and worldwide sampling. Our results show that there are several well-supported lineages within the Erythropeltidales with only two morphologically recognizable taxa at present. The first is the genus Porphyrostromium, with a well-developed basal crust, which includes two Erythrotrichia species (Porphyrostromium ligulatum comb. nov. and Porphyrostromium pulvinatum comb. nov.). The second is the branched species Erythrotrichia welwitschii (Rupr.) Batters. There are also six strongly supported Erythrotrichia carnea-like lineages. While not completely satisfactory, we propose that one lineage (lineage 2) with samples close to the type locality be designated as E. carnea with a specific isolate as an epitype. The lack of morphology to differentiate the other lineages leads to a taxonomy based solely on gene sequencing and molecular phylogeny, with rbcL sequences differentiating the lineages proposed. We hold off on proposing more species and genera until more data and samples can be gathered. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Loiseaux de Goer S.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Algae | Year: 2014

Small red algae, especially those previously referred to as 'primitive' are often overlooked, but can be quite abundant. These 'primitive' red algae are now placed in several classes distinct from the Florideophyceae, for example the Stylonematophyceae. A brownish-red filamentous alga was collected from a sandy tide pool at Cape Tribulation, Queensland, Australia. Cultured specimens were identified as Bangiopsis and conformed to the morphological characters of the genus (multicellular base, erect filaments branched or unbranched, uniseriate to multiseriate-tubular, single multilobed purple-red to red-brown plastid with central pyrenoid, vegetative cells released directly as spores). Molecular data of two plastid genes (rbcL, psbA) support placement of the Australian isolate and isolates from India in Bangiopsis. The genetic variation between these isolates and isolates from Puerto Rico previously attributed to B. subsimplex indicates that these should be considered as a separate species. As the type locality is in the Atlantic Ocean, French Guiana, and not far from Puerto Rico, and the Puerto Rican isolate has been used often in phylogenetic analyses, we propose that the Indian and Pacific Ocean isolates be designated a new species, B. franklynottii, to acknowledge Ott's many years of research on inconspicuous freshwater and marine red algae. Our research also highlights the lack of careful descriptions in many of the records of this genus and the lack of morphological characters to distinguish species. Especially within the morphologically simple red algae, morphological distinctness does not necessarily reflect evolutionary divergences. © 2014 The Korean Society of Phycology.

West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Kamiya M.,Fukui Prefectural University | Loiseaux de Goer S.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Karsten U.,University of Rostock | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Algae | Year: 2013

The mangrove algal flora of Guam and the Federated States of Micronesia has been poorly explored. We add to our knowledge of this region by observations of collections from these regions. This paper presents new and additional records of: Rhodophyta-Acrochaetium globosum, Colaconema sp., Caulacanthus indicus, Bostrychia moritziana / B. radicans, B. radicosa, B. simpliciuscula, B. kelanensis and B. tenella, Murrayella periclados, and Caloglossa ogasawaraensis; Chlorophyta-Boodleopsis carolinensis; and Phaeophyceae-Dictyota adnata, Dictyotopsis propagulifera, and Canistrocarpus cervicornis. Most specimens were cultured to investigate their reproductive biology and many specimens were further identified using molecular data. Low molecular weight carbohydrates (dulcitol, sorbitol, and digeneaside) were identified in samples of B. radicosa and B. simpliciuscula. We also present data on manganese-rich deposits found on B. simpliciuscula and B. tenella in culture, possibly formed by epiphytic bacteria. © The Korean Society of Phycology.

West J.A.,University of Melbourne | de Goer S.L.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Algae | Year: 2013

A morphologically distinct lineage within the Bostrychia moritziana-B. radicans species complex is described as a new species. Bostrychia anomala has thalli with branched monosiphonous filaments with apical cell divisions. The species has terminal tetrasporangial stichidia, each subtending cell bearing tetrasporangia with 2 cover cells. Discharged spores divide transversely, the lower cell first forming a narrow rhizoid and the upper cell forming a monosiphonous shoot. Females have subterminal procarps and males have terminal spermatangial stichidia. Carposporophytes are spherical. Isolates in culture show a pattern of cell death not associated with injury, reminiscent of programmed cell death. Bostrychia anomola shows cell death at intervals along the filaments resulting in division of adjacent cells on either side of the dead cell re-joining the filament; cell division of only one adjacent cell resulting in branching at that site; or filaments fragmenting at the cell death point with adjacent cells forming new apical cells, a means of thallus propagation. The cell death pattern could be a method of filament propagation in the mangrove environment where sexual reproduction is rare. © The Korean Society of Phycology.

West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Kamiya M.,Fukui Prefectural University | Ganesan E.K.,University of the East Venezuela | de Goer S.L.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Jose L.,St Alberts College
Algae | Year: 2015

Caloglossa species occurs in freshwater streams around Southest Asia. We report it from 2 different riverine sites in Kerala, India. Tetrasporangiate plants were observed in field collections from the Periyar River and Chalakkudy River The Chalakkudy isolate did not reproduce in culture but the Periyar isolate developed abundant tetrasporangial sori in culture. Many spores were discharged and most were abortive, but some germinated normally, sporelings forming male gametophytes with numerous spermatangial sori and females with many procarps, viable carposporophytes and some nonfunctional (no carpospores) pseudocystocarps. Some carpospores germinated forming new tetrasporophytes. Molecular evidence (28S rDNA and rbcL) placed the Indian specimens close to C. beccarii and C. fluviatilis. Considering the freshwater habitat and morphology of vegetative thalli (blade shape, rhizoid arrangement, and number of rhizoid filament per cell), the Indian specimens should be assigned to C. beccarii. © 2015 The Korean Society of Phycology.

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