Roscoff, France
Roscoff, France

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West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Kamiya M.,Fukui Prefectural University | Ganesan E.K.,University of the East Venezuela | de Goer S.L.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Jose L.,St Alberts College
Algae | Year: 2015

Caloglossa species occurs in freshwater streams around Southest Asia. We report it from 2 different riverine sites in Kerala, India. Tetrasporangiate plants were observed in field collections from the Periyar River and Chalakkudy River The Chalakkudy isolate did not reproduce in culture but the Periyar isolate developed abundant tetrasporangial sori in culture. Many spores were discharged and most were abortive, but some germinated normally, sporelings forming male gametophytes with numerous spermatangial sori and females with many procarps, viable carposporophytes and some nonfunctional (no carpospores) pseudocystocarps. Some carpospores germinated forming new tetrasporophytes. Molecular evidence (28S rDNA and rbcL) placed the Indian specimens close to C. beccarii and C. fluviatilis. Considering the freshwater habitat and morphology of vegetative thalli (blade shape, rhizoid arrangement, and number of rhizoid filament per cell), the Indian specimens should be assigned to C. beccarii. © 2015 The Korean Society of Phycology.


Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington | Yoon H.S.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Kim H.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Sun L.,Victoria University of Wellington | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Phycology | Year: 2011

The phylogeny of morphologically simple algae is problematic due to insufficient morphological characters to aid in distinguishing species and relationships. The problem is further compounded because multiple evolutionary lineages of morphologically similar species occur in most well-sampled biogeographic locations; therefore, location cannot be used as a proxy for species. The phylogeny of the upright members of the Erythropeltidales is partially clarified by combining molecular data, unialgal culture observations, and worldwide sampling. Our results show that there are several well-supported lineages within the Erythropeltidales with only two morphologically recognizable taxa at present. The first is the genus Porphyrostromium, with a well-developed basal crust, which includes two Erythrotrichia species (Porphyrostromium ligulatum comb. nov. and Porphyrostromium pulvinatum comb. nov.). The second is the branched species Erythrotrichia welwitschii (Rupr.) Batters. There are also six strongly supported Erythrotrichia carnea-like lineages. While not completely satisfactory, we propose that one lineage (lineage 2) with samples close to the type locality be designated as E. carnea with a specific isolate as an epitype. The lack of morphology to differentiate the other lineages leads to a taxonomy based solely on gene sequencing and molecular phylogeny, with rbcL sequences differentiating the lineages proposed. We hold off on proposing more species and genera until more data and samples can be gathered. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.


West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Loiseaux de Goer S.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Algae | Year: 2014

Small red algae, especially those previously referred to as 'primitive' are often overlooked, but can be quite abundant. These 'primitive' red algae are now placed in several classes distinct from the Florideophyceae, for example the Stylonematophyceae. A brownish-red filamentous alga was collected from a sandy tide pool at Cape Tribulation, Queensland, Australia. Cultured specimens were identified as Bangiopsis and conformed to the morphological characters of the genus (multicellular base, erect filaments branched or unbranched, uniseriate to multiseriate-tubular, single multilobed purple-red to red-brown plastid with central pyrenoid, vegetative cells released directly as spores). Molecular data of two plastid genes (rbcL, psbA) support placement of the Australian isolate and isolates from India in Bangiopsis. The genetic variation between these isolates and isolates from Puerto Rico previously attributed to B. subsimplex indicates that these should be considered as a separate species. As the type locality is in the Atlantic Ocean, French Guiana, and not far from Puerto Rico, and the Puerto Rican isolate has been used often in phylogenetic analyses, we propose that the Indian and Pacific Ocean isolates be designated a new species, B. franklynottii, to acknowledge Ott's many years of research on inconspicuous freshwater and marine red algae. Our research also highlights the lack of careful descriptions in many of the records of this genus and the lack of morphological characters to distinguish species. Especially within the morphologically simple red algae, morphological distinctness does not necessarily reflect evolutionary divergences. © 2014 The Korean Society of Phycology.


West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Kamiya M.,Fukui Prefectural University | Loiseaux de Goer S.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Karsten U.,University of Rostock | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Algae | Year: 2013

The mangrove algal flora of Guam and the Federated States of Micronesia has been poorly explored. We add to our knowledge of this region by observations of collections from these regions. This paper presents new and additional records of: Rhodophyta-Acrochaetium globosum, Colaconema sp., Caulacanthus indicus, Bostrychia moritziana / B. radicans, B. radicosa, B. simpliciuscula, B. kelanensis and B. tenella, Murrayella periclados, and Caloglossa ogasawaraensis; Chlorophyta-Boodleopsis carolinensis; and Phaeophyceae-Dictyota adnata, Dictyotopsis propagulifera, and Canistrocarpus cervicornis. Most specimens were cultured to investigate their reproductive biology and many specimens were further identified using molecular data. Low molecular weight carbohydrates (dulcitol, sorbitol, and digeneaside) were identified in samples of B. radicosa and B. simpliciuscula. We also present data on manganese-rich deposits found on B. simpliciuscula and B. tenella in culture, possibly formed by epiphytic bacteria. © The Korean Society of Phycology.


West J.A.,University of Melbourne | de Goer S.L.,11 Rue des Moguerou | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Algae | Year: 2013

A morphologically distinct lineage within the Bostrychia moritziana-B. radicans species complex is described as a new species. Bostrychia anomala has thalli with branched monosiphonous filaments with apical cell divisions. The species has terminal tetrasporangial stichidia, each subtending cell bearing tetrasporangia with 2 cover cells. Discharged spores divide transversely, the lower cell first forming a narrow rhizoid and the upper cell forming a monosiphonous shoot. Females have subterminal procarps and males have terminal spermatangial stichidia. Carposporophytes are spherical. Isolates in culture show a pattern of cell death not associated with injury, reminiscent of programmed cell death. Bostrychia anomola shows cell death at intervals along the filaments resulting in division of adjacent cells on either side of the dead cell re-joining the filament; cell division of only one adjacent cell resulting in branching at that site; or filaments fragmenting at the cell death point with adjacent cells forming new apical cells, a means of thallus propagation. The cell death pattern could be a method of filament propagation in the mangrove environment where sexual reproduction is rare. © The Korean Society of Phycology.


West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Loiseaux-De Goer S.,11 rue des Moguerou | Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington
Cahiers de Biologie Marine | Year: 2012

The Erythropeltidales are a ubiquitous group of red algae in the class Compsopogonophyceae. While their presence in the wild is often evident their taxonomy is frequently problematic. We approached the diversity of the group in northern Brittany, France by establishing unialgal cultures to find consistent characters and molecular methods to support the taxonomic conclusions. Erythrotrichia longistipitata sp. nov. is distinguished from other Erythrotrichia species by the elongate basal cell of erect filaments that is about 1.5-2.0 times longer than other intercalary cells. This species is molecularly distinct from all other genetic lineages of Erythrotrichia we have investigated. Erythrotrichia welwitschii is considered an obligate epiphyte of Ralfsia in the field, but in culture it grows well on glass. Monospores have bipolar germination, forming a lobed basal cell and an upper cell that becomes an upright filament. The basal cell in E. welwitschii becomes a multicellular disc from which secondary erect filaments can arise. Porphyrostromium boryanum has flat mono-stromatic upright blades and probable spermatia, carpogonia, and syngamy were observed. The complete sexual life history was not observed. Porphyrostromium ciliare with uniseriate and terete multiseriate upright shoots also produced probable spermatia and carpogonia but again the complete sexual life history was not observed. Observations of sex in the Erythropeltidales have never been completely resolved with the site of meiosis and the ploidy of various stages never fully explained.


Zuccarello G.C.,Victoria University of Wellington | Kamiya M.,Fukui Prefectural University | Ootsuki R.,Japan Women's University | De Goer S.L.,11 Rue des Moguerou | And 2 more authors.
Botanica Marina | Year: 2012

The algae of El Salvador have received limited attention. We combined collections from the mangroves of El Salvador and neighboring southern Mexico, and used culture studies and molecular analysis to gain insights into the diversity in this poorly explored region. Bostrychia montagnei, Caloglossa apomeiotica, and Caloglossa ogasawaraensis were newly recorded in El Salvador. Bostrychia montagnei has not been reported from the Pacific Americas before. B. montagnei normally produced axial cells with two-tier cells, typical of the species, but sometimes a series of axial cells had three-tier cells. This was a significant tier cell number variation not previously seen in Bostrychia species. Bostrychia montagnei had a Polysiphonia -type sexual life history with both unisexual and bisexual gametophytes. Caloglossa apomeiotica isolates in culture from El Salvador and Chiapas, Mexico, either had a normal sexual life history or asexual recycling of tetrasporophytes. Those found in El Salvador were the first record of C. apomeiotica south of Jalisco, Mexico, a distance of 1200 km. Four strains isolated from El Salvador and Chiapas, Mexico, which were morphologically part of the Caloglossa leprieurii sensu lato lineage, were analyzed; however, they were not closely related to any named species, indicating that this is a new species that will require further study. © 2012 by Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · Boston.


Necchi O.,São Paulo State University | Paiano M.O.,São Paulo State University | West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Ganesan E.K.,University of the East Venezuela | De Goer S.L.,11 Rue des Moguerou
Algae | Year: 2015

Thorea indica sp. nov. is described from the Sai River, Uttar Pradesh, India (26°39’00.7” N, 80°47’38.3” E). Its classification is based on molecular sequences of the plastid-encoded RuBisCO large-subunit gene, rbcL and the barcode region of the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, cox1, and morphological data. The sequence analyses confirm a new species of Thorea. The cox1 barcode sequence had 90.4-90.8% identity with Thorea sp. from Australia and Thorea hispida from Hawaii and China. Based on rbcL sequences the Indian specimen was positioned in a major clade with high support (>95 bootstrap and 0.95 posterior probability) containing two other species: T. okadae from Japan and T. hispida from the continental USA, Hawaii, the UK, and China. The divergences among these sequences were T. indica vs. T. okadae (2.8%) and T. indica vs. T. hispida (2.9-3.4%). The comparison of morphological characters of Thorea from India was not conclusive due to the inadequate descriptions in previous reports: most specimens reported as T. hispida fit within the circumscription of T. indica as described here. The previous report of T. siamensis from the Sai River is incorrect and the specimens fit within our description of T. indica. Thorea indica and T. okadae can be distinguished by minor morphometric characters and sexuality (dioecious vs. monoecious). © 2015 The Korean Society of Phycology.


West J.A.,University of Melbourne | Pueschel C.M.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Klochkova T.A.,Kongju National University | Hoon Kim G.,Kongju National University | And 2 more authors.
Algae | Year: 2013

The descriptions of galls, or tumors, in red algae have been sparse. Kützing (1865) observed possible galls of Bostrychia but only presented a drawing. Intensive culture observations of hundreds of specimens of the genus Bostrychia over many years have revealed that galls appeared in only a small subset of our unialgal cultures of B. kelanensis, Bostrychia moritziana / radicans, B. radicosa, B. simpliciuscula, and B. tenella and continued to be produced intermittently or continuously over many years in some cultures but were never seen in field specimens. Galls appeared as unorganized tissue found primarily on males and bisexuals, but occasionally on females and tetrasporophytes. The gall cells usually were less pigmented than neighboring tissue, but contained cells with fluorescent plastids and nuclei. The galls were not transferable to other potential hosts. Galls could be produced from gall-free tissue of cultures that originally had galls even after transfer to new culture dishes. Electon microscopy of galls on one isolate (3895) showed that virus-like particles are observed in some gall cells. It is possible that a virus is the causative agent of these galls. © The Korean Society of Phycology.


PubMed | Victoria University of Wellington, 11 Rue des Moguerou and University of Melbourne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of phycology | Year: 2016

An unknown microscopic, branched filamentous red alga was isolated into culture from coral fragments collected in Coral Bay, Western Australia. It grew well unattached or attached to glass with no reproduction other than fragmentation of filaments. Cells of some branch tips became slightly contorted and digitated, possibly as a substrate-contact-response seen at filament tips of various algae. Attached multicellular compact disks on glass had a very different cellular configuration and size than the free filaments. In culture the filaments did not grow on or in coral fragments. Molecular phylogenies based on four markers (rbcL, cox1, 18S, 28S) clearly showed it belongs to the order Rhodogorgonales, as a sister clade of Renouxia. Based on these results, the alga is described as the new genus and species Rhodenigma contortum in the Rhodogorgonaceae. It had no morphological similarity to either of the other genera in Rhodogorgonaceae and illustrates the unknown diversity in cryptic habitats such as tropical coral rubble.

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