Federal Way, GA, United States
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Jain R.B.,1061 Albemarle Way
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) has been shown to be associated with adverse thyroid function. The impact of exposure to selected OCPs on total serum thyroxine (TT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was evaluated by analyzing data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor, and heptachlor epoxide were selected for analysis. Regression models with logs of TSH and TT4 as dependent variables and OCP exposure, race/ethnicity, iodine and smoking status, total lipids and others as independent variables were fitted. TSH levels increased (p. <. 0.05) with increase in trans-nonachlor exposure for 20-39. year old iodine deficient males. TSH levels were higher when oxychlordane exposure was low than when the exposure was medium or high for 20-39. year old iodine deficient females (p. <. 0.05). For iodine deficient females, TT4 levels were lower when p,p'-DDE exposure was low than when it was medium (p. <. 0.05). For non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), TT4 levels decreased with increase in exposure to heptachlor epoxide (p. <. 0.05). For iodine replete males, TSH levels increased with increase in trans-nonachlor exposure (p. <. 0.05). For iodine replete females, (i) Mexican Americans (MA) had higher TSH levels when the exposure to oxychlordane was medium than when the exposure was low; (ii) for 60. +. years old, there was a positive association between TSH and heptachlor epoxide levels; and (iii) TT4 levels had an inverse association with trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane. In general though not always, (i) TSH and TT4 levels were lowest for the 20-39. years old and highest for the 60. +. years old (p<=0.05), (ii) TSH and TT4 levels for iodine deficient males and females were lowest for NHB, highest for MA, and in-between for non-Hispanic white, and (iii) non-smokers had higher TSH and TT4 levels than smokers and in general, statistically significantly so. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Jain R.B.,1061 Albemarle Way
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination survey for the years 2003-2010 were used (n = 1565) to evaluate the effect of age, parity, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, pregnancy, iron (Fe) storage status, smoking status, and fish/shellfish consumption on the levels of urine barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cesium (Cs), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), thallium (TI), tungsten (W), uranium (U), and mercury (Hg) for females aged 17-39 yr old. Regression analysis was used to fit models for each of the 11 metals. For Cd, Cs, TI, and Hg, age was positively associated with levels of these metals. Body mass index was negatively associated with levels of Cs, Co, and TI. Levels of Co, Mo, and W increased over the period 2003-2010. Over the same period, levels of Pb, Sb, and Hg declined. Non-Hispanic blacks showed lower levels of almost all metals compared to either Mexican American or other unclassified race/ethnicities. Non-Hispanic whites displayed higher levels than non-Hispanic blacks for 9 of 11 metals. Smokers displayed significantly higher levels of Pb, Sb, W, and U than nonsmokers but significantly lower levels of Cd and Mo than nonsmokers. Pregnancy was found to be associated with higher levels of Ba, Cs, Co, Mo, Pb, W, and Hg compared to nonpregnant females. Levels of Mo, Cs, and Cd declined significantly during the pregnancy period but levels of Co rose during the same period. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Jain R.B.,1061 Albemarle Way
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013

The presence of perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFC) in maternal serum may pose a risk to the developing fetus. A large-scale study to evaluate the extent of exposure to PFC in pregnant and nonpregnant females in the United States has not been conducted. The impact of pregnancy on the concentration levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed by analyzing data (n = 1079) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003-2008 for females aged 17-39 yr. While pregnant females possessed lower serum concentrations of all 4 PFC than nonpregnant females, only the differences for PFOS were significant (9.6 vs. 11.8 ng/ml). Those mothers who breast-fed at least one child displayed significantly lower levels of PFOA (2.6 vs. 3.1 ng/ml) than those with non-breast-fed infants. The concentration levels of PFNA and PFOA decreased with increase in number of live births. While levels of PFHxS and PFOS markedly fell over the period 2003-2008, the levels of PFNA rose over the same time period. There was nonlinear elevation in levels of PFHxS and PFOS with age. Smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. There was a significant, positive association between total cholesterol and PFOS as well as for serum albumin with PFHxS and PFOS. Elevated levels of PFNA and PFOA were associated with a rise in serum protein. Further studies are needed to adequately explain why smoking was associated with increased levels of PFNA and PFOA. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Jain R.B.,1061 Albemarle Way
Environmental Research | Year: 2013

The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Impact of pregnancy on levels of urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate has not been studied using large scale data. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 were used to evaluate risk factors that impact levels of these contaminants among females of child bearing age. In addition to pregnancy, other risk factors evaluated were: age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, serum triglyceride levels, and iodine deficiency status. Pregnancy did not affect the levels of perchlorate and nitrate but, new to this study, it was found that thiocyanate levels were statistically significantly lower among pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females (p< 0.01). Iodine deficient females had statistically significantly lower levels of these contaminates than iodine replete females (p< 0.01). Levels of thiocyanate among smokers were about five times higher than among non-smokers. Non-Hispanic Blacks had the lowest and Mexican Americans had the highest levels of perchlorate and nitrate. The reverse was true for thiocyanate levels. There was an inverse association between nitrate and education levels. There was a positive association between serum triglyceride levels and the levels of these contaminants. Also, new to this study, of concern, was the fact that levels of these contaminants increased among females over the period 2005-2008. Levels of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate did not vary across pregnancy trimesters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | 1061 Albemarle Way
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2013

The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN.


Impact of pregnancy on levels of urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate has not been studied using large scale data. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 were used to evaluate risk factors that impact levels of these contaminants among females of child bearing age. In addition to pregnancy, other risk factors evaluated were: age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, serum triglyceride levels, and iodine deficiency status. Pregnancy did not affect the levels of perchlorate and nitrate but, new to this study, it was found that thiocyanate levels were statistically significantly lower among pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females (p<0.01). Iodine deficient females had statistically significantly lower levels of these contaminates than iodine replete females (p<0.01). Levels of thiocyanate among smokers were about five times higher than among non-smokers. Non-Hispanic Blacks had the lowest and Mexican Americans had the highest levels of perchlorate and nitrate. The reverse was true for thiocyanate levels. There was an inverse association between nitrate and education levels. There was a positive association between serum triglyceride levels and the levels of these contaminants. Also, new to this study, of concern, was the fact that levels of these contaminants increased among females over the period 2005-2008. Levels of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate did not vary across pregnancy trimesters.


Jain R.B.,1061 Albemarle Way
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2014

Contribution of diet and selected risk factors to the levels of four polyfluorinated compounds was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 were used. Dietary factors accounted for 10.4% to 21.2% of the explained variation. Amount of milk consumed was found to be positively associated (p< 0.01) with perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) but negatively associated with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (p< 0.01). Amount of meat and fish consumed was positively associated (p< 0.01) with PFNA and PFOS. Amount of non-alcoholic beverages consumed was positively associated (p< 0.01) with PFNA and PFOA. Levels of PFOS increased (p< 0.01) with increase in the amount of alcoholic beverages consumed. Total amount of alcohol consumed was positively associated (p< 0.01) with PFNA. Levels of both PFOA and PFOS decreased with increase in total amount of caffeine consumed. Total amount of fat consumed was negatively associated with PFNA and positively associated with PFOS. Total calories consumed were negatively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOS but positively associated with PFNA. New to this study, positive correlations (p< 0.01) between serum cholesterol and PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were found. Serum albumin levels were negatively correlated with PFHxS but positively correlated with PFOA and PFOS. Males had statistically significantly higher levels of all four PFCs as compared to females and Mexican Americans had the lowest levels of all four PFCs than other race/ethnic groups. Levels of all four PFCs increased with increase in family income. Body mass index was negatively correlated with PFNA but positively associated with PFOA. There was a statistically significant decrease in the levels of PFOS over survey years 2003-2008. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Jain R.B.,1061 Albemarle Way
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2014

Association of the levels of serum selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) with thyroid function was assessed by analyzing data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the cycle 2011-2012. Thyroid function variables analyzed were as follows: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), and thyroglobulin (TGN). Regression models with log-transformed values of thyroid hormones as independent variables and age, race/ethnicity, smoking and iodine sufficiency status, respondents' education, and levels of Se, Zn, and Cu as dependent variables were fitted. For males, levels of Zn were associated with decreased levels of FT4 and TT4, and levels of Cu were associated with increased levels of FT4 and TT4. For females, levels of Cu were associated with increased levels of TT3 and TT4. Smoking was found to be associated with lower levels of TSH and higher levels of TGN in males. Smoking was found to be associated with lower levels of TT4 in females. Males had about 5-10 % higher levels of both Se and Zn, but as much as 20 % lower levels of Cu than females. Smoking was associated with lower levels of Zn, but higher levels of Cu in males. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


PubMed | 1061 Albemarle Way
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2013

Contribution of diet and selected risk factors to the levels of four polyfluorinated compounds was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 were used. Dietary factors accounted for 10.4% to 21.2% of the explained variation. Amount of milk consumed was found to be positively associated (p<0.01) with perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) but negatively associated with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (p<0.01). Amount of meat and fish consumed was positively associated (p<0.01) with PFNA and PFOS. Amount of non-alcoholic beverages consumed was positively associated (p<0.01) with PFNA and PFOA. Levels of PFOS increased (p<0.01) with increase in the amount of alcoholic beverages consumed. Total amount of alcohol consumed was positively associated (p<0.01) with PFNA. Levels of both PFOA and PFOS decreased with increase in total amount of caffeine consumed. Total amount of fat consumed was negatively associated with PFNA and positively associated with PFOS. Total calories consumed were negatively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOS but positively associated with PFNA. New to this study, positive correlations (p<0.01) between serum cholesterol and PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were found. Serum albumin levels were negatively correlated with PFHxS but positively correlated with PFOA and PFOS. Males had statistically significantly higher levels of all four PFCs as compared to females and Mexican Americans had the lowest levels of all four PFCs than other race/ethnic groups. Levels of all four PFCs increased with increase in family income. Body mass index was negatively correlated with PFNA but positively associated with PFOA. There was a statistically significant decrease in the levels of PFOS over survey years 2003-2008.

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