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South Milwaukee, WI, United States

Fassnacht K.S.,101 South Webster Street | Steele T.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Forest Ecology and Management

Snag retention is increasingly being incorporated into forest management guidelines. Questions remain, however, in northern hardwood systems regarding factors affecting retention in actively managed stands, the effectiveness of snag creation, and the net effects of snag creation and timber harvesting on snag numbers and sizes. To address some of these questions, we examined the dynamics of natural and created snags within mature, even-aged northern hardwood forests under seven different management scenarios: three Harvest Only treatments, three Harvest Plus (created) Snags treatments, and one untreated Control. We found tree diameter, tree species, and stand treatment status (i.e., managed or Control) to be related to the retention of natural snags, created snags, or both. Snags were less likely to remain standing if they had smaller diameters, were species with relatively rapid decay rates, or were found in stands that had been logged. We found girdling trees to be an effective method of dead wood creation, although trees took longer to die than we expected. At least 84% of girdled trees had died in most stands within 4.5. years of girdling, and 30-77% of girdled trees were still standing 5.5. years after treatment. Comparison of net effects of snag creation and timber harvesting among treatments showed that managed stands, on average, experienced net snag losses compared to untreated Controls. These losses were statistically significant for all snag sizes, but not for large snags alone (i.e., dbh ≥25.4. cm). Active management prescriptions that included snag creation demonstrated the potential to mitigate snag losses, with the extent of mitigation varying with the type of management. Surprisingly, mitigation was primarily driven by significantly greater natural snag recruitment in Plus Snags treatments, potentially due to competition from girdled trees that had not yet died. Our results may help inform the development of snag management guidelines in even-aged, second-growth northern hardwood systems for forest managers who are interested in enhancing the structural complexity of these forests. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Peterson K.,101 South Webster Street | Diss-Torrance A.,101 South Webster Street
Journal of Environmental Management

This study extends previous research on motivations for compliance with environmental regulations. It addresses contexts where regulatees have primarily sporadic short term interests, where costs of compliance are modest, and where costs of non-compliance are low. The behavior studied is the movement of firewood for camping, a principal cause for the spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), one of several invasive species plaguing the eastern United States. Based on a three-wave mail survey that produced 495 usable returns (64% response rate), findings suggest that motivations are influential in these contexts. Calculated motivations exert the greatest influence-especially when related to firewood price and convenience, while normative motivations (civic duty based) exert less influence, as does ability to comply. These findings have important implications, not only for controlling the spread of forest diseases and invasive pests, but also for regulating natural resources in general. They suggest that national, state, and local governments can manage natural resources to encourage user compliance with environmental rules, and develop communication strategies that leverage pro-environment norms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Peterson K.,101 South Webster Street | Diss-Torrance A.,101 South Webster Street
Journal of Environmental Management

This study replicates and extends research conducted in 2008. Based on a random sample of 800 campers who used Wisconsin state parks and forests in 2010, it confirms that calculated, normative, and social motivations are all important determinants of firewood movement rule compliance, a context where regulatees have primarily sporadic short-term interests, and where costs of compliance and non-compliance are both low. The study uses bi-variate statistical tests and recursive partitioning (standard and conditional permutation random forests) for analysis, and discusses findings from the perspective of a natural resources regulator of activities in multiple domains (e.g., business and recreational uses of forests in both rural and urban settings). It demonstrates how knowledge of motivations for compliance can inform two integrative research and analysis frameworks - motivational postures and social marketing, and discusses how affect and social norms may be utilized to improve regulator effectiveness. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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