Reeves W.K.,1000 iversity Ave |
Reeves W.K.,Apo Box Inc. |
Jones G.Z.,1000 iversity Ave
Western North American Naturalist | Year: 2010
A wide variety of blood-feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. The significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission is poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis, a biting midge, can survive on plant sugars but might also feed on homopteran honeydew. The survival of C. sonorensis fed 10% melezitose or 10% stachyose was compared to that of C. sonorensis fed 10% sucrose A significantly greater number of C. sonorensis survived longer when fed melezitose than when fed either stachyose or sucrose. The effect of sugar meals on vector competence was measured using bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses. There was no significant difference in viral persistence. However, if C. sonorensis feeds on homopteran honeydew in the wild, a larger number of midges could survive to transmit orbiviruses. © 2010.
MacZko K.A.,University of Wyoming |
MacZko K.A.,150nter Ave |
Tanaka J.A.,University of Wyoming |
Tanaka J.A.,1000 iversity Ave |
And 9 more authors.
Rangelands | Year: 2012
The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable and related efforts invite innovation and experimentation with ecological, economic, and social ranch sustainability assessment. Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ranch's rangeland resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. Some evidence shows that profitable cattle ranching operations can enhance conservation by keeping ranches intact, preventing subdivision development and protecting biodiversity. Criteria are statements of categorical conditions or processes that are goals of sustainable development. Indicators are natural and social variables that may be monitored, providing quantitative measures of trends in human wellbeing and economic and natural resource conditions. Two indicators were selected to address water volume and the duration of water availability in a stream, spring, or reservoir. Access to and quantity of water for livestock and other animals, as well as aquatic habitat values, can be important assets.
Lakhera N.,1000 iversity Ave |
Graucob A.,Leibniz Institute for New Materials |
Schneider A.S.,Leibniz Institute for New Materials |
Kroner E.,Leibniz Institute for New Materials |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2013
This research is the first of its kind to study the comparison between spherical and flat probe adhesion behavior as a function of viscoelasticity. Viscoelastic properties were tailored through the use of acrylate networks synthesized from tert-butyl acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) solutions. The molecular weight and the weight fraction of PEGDMA crosslinker was altered to maintain a constant glass transition temperature of approximately 57 °C, but systematically vary the viscoelastic properties and the rubbery moduli (1-62 MPa). Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed to characterize the low-strain thermo-mechanical behavior of the materials. Viscoelastic behavior of the materials was characterized by creep testing and was observed to inversely correlate with crosslinking density. The samples tested with the spherical probe exhibited low pull-off forces at temperatures well above and well below the glass transition temperature of the material. A maximum in pull-off force was observed in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature owing to the viscoelastic energy dissipative processes. The peak in pull-off force was observed to decrease with an increase in crosslinking density and modulus. Adhesion measurements using the flat probe demonstrated a strong dependence of pull-off force on the modulus of the material above the glass transition temperature. It is concluded that viscoelasticity is a dominating factor in increasing the pull-off force values in the vicinity of the glass transition, while it plays a little or no role for temperatures 20 °C away from transition region, opening the possibility of thermally switchable adhesives. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
McInroy J.E.,University of Wyoming |
McInroy J.E.,1000 iversity Ave |
Robertson L.M.,Air Force Research Lab |
Robertson L.M.,U.S. Air force
AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference | Year: 2010
This paper develops methods for regularly characterizing satellites at high resolution and low recurring cost using satellites whose combined orbits collectively have excellent views of space objects. Humans and autonomous spacecraft effectively collaborate by allowing humans to modify and direct both overall objectives and short term goals while using autonomous planning techniques to manage complex, yet well-defined and predictable orbital events and sensor allocations. This allows humans to provide input where they are strong, such as understanding high level goals and reasoning amidst uncertainty. Simultaneously, it allows autonomous optimization and planning techniques to operate in domains where they are strong, in this case when many spacecraft must be jointly controlled over space and time to achieve a clearly defined overall final result. Characterization of satellites in geosynchronous orbit is especially important, as they are too far away for high resolution observation from Earth. This paper formulates observation of multiple satellites by a set of Observer satellites first as a binary integer programming problem. Next, methods are found to relax the formulation to become a convex linear program. Thus global optimality, high speed, and convergence to the optimum are assured. Real-time human input is allowed by modification of the optimization weights. For instance, if a human decides that a particular object requires extra observation immediately, then this paper shows how this short term goal can be achieved by weight modification. Similarly, if a human operator desires that an object be observed more persistently and accurately than other objects, then this paper develops weighting methods to achieve this long term goal. Simulation results confirm the viability of the technique on a variety of orbits, including both low Earth and geosynchronous cases. In addition, the simulations indicate that the binary approximation of the convex relaxation achieves nearly optimal performance. The method is fully general, encompassing 3-D and elliptical orbits.
Naughton J.W.,University of Wyoming |
Naughton J.W.,1000 iversity Ave |
Demillard E.,University of Wyoming |
Demillard E.,1000 iversity Ave |
And 3 more authors.
32nd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference | Year: 2016
The evaluation of wall shear stress on different surfaces is important for assessing viscous drag reduction concepts. Two different methods of determining wall shear stress, Oil Film Interferometry (OFI) and a momentum integral approach, were evaluated over a 20 cm section of a smooth flat plate. The results indicate that, while the wall shear stress values determines using the two approaches are similar, the momentum integral results show a range of results depending on the distance above the wall to which the integral is performed. The small portion of the plate over which the measurements were carried out is pointed out as one source of uncertainty in the momentum integral approach. 88ABW-2016-2473. © 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved.
Pruett C.L.,Florida Institute of Technology |
Pruett C.L.,University of Alaska Fairbanks |
Topp C.M.,University of Alaska Fairbanks |
Maley J.M.,University of Alaska Fairbanks |
And 6 more authors.
Condor | Year: 2013
Pleistocene refugia likely contributed to the modern biodiversity of northern areas. Using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b gene, we compared 11 forest-dwelling bird species from Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands) with populations from Alaska, Washington, and other locations in the United States. If Haida Gwaii was an unglaciated refugium, its modern populations should feature a high number of endemic lineages and divergence times that predate the end of the last glacial maximum, ca. 13,000-19,000 years before present (ybp). Furthermore, the genetic diversity of these populations should be higher than that in areas colonized after the glacial retreat. Four of the species examined from Haida Gwaii showed old divergences and a high percentage of endemic lineages: the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus), Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus), Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri), and Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator); all four have endemic subspecies on these islands. The Pacific Wren (Troglodytes pacificus) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) showed genetic trends associated with populations in refugia, including high genetic diversity on Haida Gwaii. Estimated divergence dates of these six species were fairly uniform (~20,000-30,000 ybp), being greatest for the Hairy Woodpecker (>70,000 ybp) and Pine Grosbeak (>120,000 ybp). There was an association between apparent occurrence in a refugium and a sedentary lifehistory strategy and a trend for endemic subspecies (4 of 6) also to show this association. Our findings suggest that the Haida Gwaii area hosted a forested refugium during the cycles of climatic change in the late Pleistocene. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2013.
Naughton J.W.,University of Wyoming |
Naughton J.W.,1000 iversity Ave |
Balas M.,University of Wyoming |
Balas M.,1000 iversity Ave |
And 15 more authors.
49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition | Year: 2011
The turbulence in the atmospheric inflow to a wind turbine as well as the turbulence produced by the wind turbine are considered. A good understanding and ability to model this turbulence is critical for designing turbines with higher efficiencies and greater reliability. The atmospheric boundary layer is first discussed broadly followed by a presentation of past and present measurement and modeling efforts. The effects of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence on wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroelastics are then discussed, and the importance of wake turbulence is considered. Attempts to use control to mitigate the effects of turbulence on the wind turbine are presented, and the extreme challenges of modeling all the relevant scales of turbulence required to accurately model wind turbines is discussed. As each of these items is presented, future needs for bettering our understanding of turbulence relevant to a wind turbine are identified. The presentation of these subjects makes it clear that there is still much to be learned about the turbulence associated with wind turbines that could impact future designs. Copyright © 2011 by Jonathan W. Naughton.
Ma D.-Y.,Shandong University |
Wang X.-H.,Shandong University |
Song C.,Shandong University |
Wang S.-G.,Shandong University |
And 2 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2011
Aerobic granules to treat wastewater containing methylene blue (MB) were successfully developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as inoculum. After cultivation for 87days, stable aerobic granules were obtained with a clearly defined shape and a diameters ranging from 2 to 4mm. After granulation, the removal efficiencies of MB and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 56% and 93%, respectively. Specific MB biodegradation rates followed the Haldane model and the associated kinetic parameters were as follows: Vmax=184.15mgL-1h-1, Ks=209.96mgL-1, and Ki=21.23mgL-1. The aerobic granules proved to be a feasible and effective way to degrade MB-containing wastewater. © 2011.
Garnich M.R.,1000 iversity Ave |
Fertig III R.S.,1000 iversity Ave |
Anderson E.M.,1000 iversity Ave
Collection of Technical Papers - AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference | Year: 2013
A finite element (FE) micromechanics modeling capability has been developed for simulating the mechanical behavior of random distributions of fibers in a periodic unit cell to predict fatigue damage in the matrix. The model has automated features that facilitate parametric studies. This includes the ability to simulate any three-dimensional macroscopically uniform state of stress and to easily generate new fiber distributions that can have variable numbers of fibers. An interphase material was introduced to explore the effect of a weak fiber/matrix interface. A damage evolution variable driven by the kinetic theory of fracture was implemented within the FE computations to predict the time evolution of damage at each material point. The spatial and time evolution of damage in the micromechanics model has been predicted for several states of composite stress. The effects of a weak fiber/matrix interphase, fiber distribution, and fiber volume fraction were explored. © 2012 AIAA.
PubMed | 1000 iversity Ave
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virological methods | Year: 2010
A quantifiable in situ immune fluorescent assay (IFA) was developed to measure bluetongue virus (BTV) binding to mammalian cells. The utility of the assay was demonstrated with both Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. Since heparin sulfate (HS) has been shown to function as a receptor for a number of viruses, its role as a receptor for BTV was evaluated with the in situ IFA. Binding of BTV to both CHO and CPAE cells was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by HS. In addition, HS deficient CHO cells showed greatly diminished binding of BTV when compared to the parental cell line. The IFA protocol will find application, as a non-isotopic, quantifiable technique, to study virus-cell receptor interactions. Information gained from such studies will expand our understanding of the early steps in virus replication.