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Laramie, WY, United States

Becker M.E.,Louisiana State University | Becker M.E.,1000 East University Avenue | Reeves W.K.,Apo Box Inc. | Dejean S.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2010

In November 2004, bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) serotype 1 (BTV-1) was detected for the first time in the United States from a hunter-killed deer in St. Mary Parish, LA. In 2005, sera surveys were conducted on three cattle farms near the area where the deer was found, and BTV-1-seropositive cattle were found on two of the three farms; in 2006, sera surveys from the cattle on the three farms did not detect any BTV-1-positive animals. The purpose of this study was to survey ceratopogonid populations at the three farms and test field-collected specimens for the presence of BTV and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, EHDV). Miniature CDC light traps and New Jersey traps were used to capture ceratopogonids on the three farms from January 2006 through November 2007. In total, 3,319 ceratopogonids were captured, including 1,790 specimens of 10 different species of Culicoides. IR-RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to screen for BTV and EHDV in 264 pools representing 2,309 specimens collected at the farms. All positive samples were sequenced for serotype determination. Five pools of 275 (1.8%) were positive for BTV. Pools of four species of Culicoides were found to be positive: Culicoides crepuscularis (Malloch), Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (two pools), Culicoides haematopotus Malloch, and Culicoides furens (Poey). The amplicons of the positive specimens were sequenced and found to be identical to both BTV-17 and BTV-13. During our study, no BTV-1 transmission was detected in cattle, and no BTV-1 was detected in specimens of ceratopogonids. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

Wang L.,University of Tennessee at Chattanooga | Mavriplis D.J.,University of Wyoming | Mavriplis D.J.,1000 East University Avenue
AIAA Journal | Year: 2010

This paper presents an unsteady discrete adjoint algorithm for high-order implicit discontinuous Galerkin discretizations in time-dependent inviscid flow problems. The major function of the adjoint approach is to obtain the sensitivity information in a time-dependent functional output, which in turn is used to drive an unsteady shape-optimization process to deliver a minimum of the objective functional. A gradient-based optimization strategy is investigated, in which the sensitivity derivatives of the objective functional with respect to input variables are formulated in the context of high-order discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, while special emphasis is given to the variations and linearizations of curvilinear boundary elements. Implicit temporal discretizations consisting of a second-order backward Euler scheme and a fourth-order implicit Runge-Kutta scheme are considered exclusively in this work, where the corresponding adjoint problem is required to be solved in a backward time-integration manner due to the associated transpose operation. Two numerical examples for the unsteady shape design techniques are presented to verify the derived sensitivity formulations and to demonstrate the performance of the adjoint approach; the first involves an inverse shape-optimization case by matching a time-dependent target pressure profile for a two-dimensional periodic vortical gust impinging on a RAE-2822 airfoil, and the second considers minimization of the acoustic noise produced by subsonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil with a 0.03c thick blunt trailing edge. Copyright © 2010 by Li Wang, Dimitri Mavriplis, and W. Kyle Anderson. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.

Pauli J.N.,University of Wyoming | Pauli J.N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Whiteman J.P.,University of Wyoming | Marcot B.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Mammalogy | Year: 2011

Demographic structure is central to understanding the dynamics of animal populations. However, determining the age of free-ranging mammals is difficult, and currently impossible when sampling with noninvasive, genetic-based approaches. We present a method to estimate age class by combining measures of telomere lengths with other biologically meaningful covariates in a Bayesian network. We applied this approach to American and Pacific martens (Martes americana and M. caurina) and compared predicted age with that obtained from counts of cementum annuli. Using telomere length and the covariates sex, species, and estimates of population density obtained from commercial trapping records, we assigned martens to juvenile (<1 year) or adult (≥1 year) classes with 75-88% accuracy. In our analysis for live-captured martens, for which information on body size and whether animals were juveniles or adults would be available, we achieved 90-93% accuracy when assigning individuals to 5 discrete age classes (0-4+ years). This general approach could be extended to other species for noninvasive estimation of age class, or in place of invasive aging methods, and enable demographically based population analyses that have heretofore been impossible. © American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

Reeves W.K.,1000 East University Avenue | Reeves W.K.,Apo Box Inc. | Miller M.M.,1000 East University Avenue
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2010

Organic insect repellents are of interest to many agricultural producers and animal owners. Geraniol, a plant-derived alcohol, is naturally produced by a wide range of plants and is a US Environmental Protection Agency minimum risk pesticide. Previous studies have shown various concentrations of geraniol repel or kill mosquitoes; however, geraniol might cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans or animals. We tested a commercially available 2 aqueous solution of geraniol on ponies as a mosquito repellent. Five trials were conducted on ponies treated with a 60-ml aerosol mist (30 ml per side) of 2 geraniol or as untreated controls. Animals were observed 3 h postapplication to check for skin irritation. Aedes aegypti, in feeding tubes, were held on the ponies for 7 min. The average percent of biting on control animals was 56, with a range of 1690, and the average for the treatments was 13, with a range of 086. Based on statistical models, there was no significant difference (P 0.081) in the percent bites between treated and untreated animals after 3 h. Based on our data, 2 geraniol was not an adequate mosquito repellent for horses. We did not observe any skin irritation on the animals treated with 2 geraniol. © 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

Reeves W.K.,1000 East University Avenue | Reeves W.K.,Apo Box Inc. | Lloyd J.E.,1000 East University Avenue | Stobart R.,1000 East University Avenue | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2010

Culicoides sonorensis is the primary vector of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in North America. Bluetongue disease is one of the most economically important arthropod-borne diseases of sheep in North America, because it causes significant morbidity and mortality and can lead to local quarantines and international trade restrictions. Long-lasting repellent pesticides could be applied to sheep as they are moved down from mountain pastures to protect them from biting midges until the 1st frost. We tested long-lasting pesticides on sheep as repellents against C. sonorensis. Both PYthon ear tags with 10 zeta-cypermethrin (9.8 g/tag) synergized with 20 piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and a 12-ml low-volume spray application of ready-to-use sheep insecticide (Y-TEX) with 2.5 permethrin and 2.5 PBO in an oil-based formulation were repellent to C. sonorensis for at least 35 wk after a single application. © 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

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