Beverly, MA, United States
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Marques A.R.,Alfama Inc. | Marques A.R.,100 Cummings Center | Kromer L.,New University of Lisbon | Gallo D.J.,Alfama Inc. | And 33 more authors.
Organometallics | Year: 2012

The discovery of the biological effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in recent years strongly suggests that CO could find applications as a therapeutic agent. CO is a highly toxic gas when used at industrial doses, due in part to its binding affinity to hemoglobin. Since hemoglobin binds CO with the highest affinity in vivo, it also constitutes a major barrier to the delivery of CO to tissues in need of therapy. A method of delivering CO that can bypass hemoglobin is the use of pro-drugs or CO carriers, called CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) that become activated and release CO in tissues in need of treatment. Organometallic carbonyl complexes are best suited to play the role of CO carriers, and indeed the natural CO carrier molecules hemoglobin and myoglobin belong to this class of chemical compounds. Here we describe the preparation of novel molybdenum CO-RMs of general formula Mo(CO)3(CNCR′ RCO2R)3 (R′, R = H, Me, iPr, CH 2Ph, CO2Li, -CH2CH2-, -CH 2(CH2)3CH2-; R = H, Li), which present favorable druglike characteristics, have low toxicity, and demonstrate specific CO delivery to the liver in the treatment of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure in mice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


MacLean M.G.,University of New Hampshire | MacLean M.G.,100 Cummings Center | Congalton R.G.,University of New Hampshire
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2015

Context: When predicting locations of invasive plant species, mapping habitat fragmentation can be an important part of the prediction process. There are many different fragmentation mapping programs, each computing a unique set of fragmentation metrics that can be used in modeling probabilities of invasive species presence. Objectives: In this study, we compare the results from five freely available fragmentation programs: FRAGSTATS; the Landscape Fragmentation Tool; Shape Metrics; Patch Analyst; and PolyFrag. We compare these programs quantitatively on their ability to predict invasive plant presence and qualitatively for ease of use. Methods: The programs were compared using invasive plant inventories completed by The Nature Conservancy on parcels within the Coastal Watershed in New Hampshire, USA. Known locations of invasive plants, pseudo-absence locations, and metrics derived from each of the fragmentation programs were used to create maps of predicted presence for the parcels. The maps were compared and assessed for accuracy. Results: FRAGSTATS and PolyFrag created prediction maps with the highest accuracies and were relatively easy to use. The other programs had lower accuracies or were more difficult to implement. Both FRAGSTATS and PolyFrag compute similar fragmentation metrics and the models found similar metrics significant in predicting presence. Both programs predicted that invasive plants were less likely to be found in deciduous forests than in either mixed or coniferous forests. Conclusions: At the parcel level, some fragmentation programs result in metrics with more predictive power. Based on this analysis, we recommend FRAGSTATS for use with raster datasets and PolyFrag for vector datasets. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Ou C.,Texas A&M University | Ou C.,100 Cummings Center | Winemiller K.O.,Texas A&M University
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2016

Seasonal hydrology is assumed to be an important reason why the Lower Mekong Basin supports highly productive and biodiverse inland fisheries. We used C and N stable isotope ratios of tissue samples to estimate primary production sources supporting fish biomass in the Mekong and three large tributaries in Cambodia. We used a Bayesian mixing model to estimate relative contributions of four alternative production sources-seston, benthic algae, riparian grasses, and riparian macrophytes. There was little seasonal variation in isotopic signatures of riparian plants, but benthic algae and seston showed large seasonal shifts in carbon ratios. Seston and benthic algae were the most important production sources supporting fish biomass overall during the dry season, and riparian vegetation was the most important source during the wet season. Sources contributed differentially to biomass of trophic and habitat guilds, especially during the dry season. A dam on the upper Sesan River has changed hydrology, channel geomorphology, and other factors and, compared with the other three rivers, its fish biomass appears to derive from algae to a greater extent. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.


Lehnert M.,University of Bonn | Tejedor A.,100 Cummings Center
American Fern Journal | Year: 2016

Three species of the genus Cyathea from the sandstone areas of the Amotape-Huancabamba zone are described as new to science: Cyathea abrapatriciana and C. oreopteroides from northern Peru and C. chimaera from southern Ecuador. They are illustrated and discussed regarding their biogeography and putative relationships..

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