MacLean M.G.,University of New Hampshire |
MacLean M.G.,100 Cummings Center |
Congalton R.G.,University of New Hampshire
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2015
Context: When predicting locations of invasive plant species, mapping habitat fragmentation can be an important part of the prediction process. There are many different fragmentation mapping programs, each computing a unique set of fragmentation metrics that can be used in modeling probabilities of invasive species presence. Objectives: In this study, we compare the results from five freely available fragmentation programs: FRAGSTATS; the Landscape Fragmentation Tool; Shape Metrics; Patch Analyst; and PolyFrag. We compare these programs quantitatively on their ability to predict invasive plant presence and qualitatively for ease of use. Methods: The programs were compared using invasive plant inventories completed by The Nature Conservancy on parcels within the Coastal Watershed in New Hampshire, USA. Known locations of invasive plants, pseudo-absence locations, and metrics derived from each of the fragmentation programs were used to create maps of predicted presence for the parcels. The maps were compared and assessed for accuracy. Results: FRAGSTATS and PolyFrag created prediction maps with the highest accuracies and were relatively easy to use. The other programs had lower accuracies or were more difficult to implement. Both FRAGSTATS and PolyFrag compute similar fragmentation metrics and the models found similar metrics significant in predicting presence. Both programs predicted that invasive plants were less likely to be found in deciduous forests than in either mixed or coniferous forests. Conclusions: At the parcel level, some fragmentation programs result in metrics with more predictive power. Based on this analysis, we recommend FRAGSTATS for use with raster datasets and PolyFrag for vector datasets. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Marques A.R.,Alfama Inc. |
Marques A.R.,100 Cummings Center |
Kromer L.,New University of Lisbon |
Gallo D.J.,Alfama Inc. |
And 33 more authors.
Organometallics | Year: 2012
The discovery of the biological effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in recent years strongly suggests that CO could find applications as a therapeutic agent. CO is a highly toxic gas when used at industrial doses, due in part to its binding affinity to hemoglobin. Since hemoglobin binds CO with the highest affinity in vivo, it also constitutes a major barrier to the delivery of CO to tissues in need of therapy. A method of delivering CO that can bypass hemoglobin is the use of pro-drugs or CO carriers, called CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) that become activated and release CO in tissues in need of treatment. Organometallic carbonyl complexes are best suited to play the role of CO carriers, and indeed the natural CO carrier molecules hemoglobin and myoglobin belong to this class of chemical compounds. Here we describe the preparation of novel molybdenum CO-RMs of general formula Mo(CO)3(CNCR′ RCO2R)3 (R′, R = H, Me, iPr, CH 2Ph, CO2Li, -CH2CH2-, -CH 2(CH2)3CH2-; R = H, Li), which present favorable druglike characteristics, have low toxicity, and demonstrate specific CO delivery to the liver in the treatment of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure in mice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.