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Newport, OR, United States

Granek E.F.,Portland State University | Conn K.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Nilsen E.B.,U.S. Geological Survey | Pillsbury L.,Laboratory and Environmental Assessment Program | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known. We investigated these patterns for a suite of persistent legacy contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chemicals of emerging concern including pharmaceuticals within two Oregon coastal estuaries (Coos and Netarts Bays). In the more urbanized Coos Bay, native Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) tissue had approximately twice the number of PCB congeners at over seven times the total concentration, yet fewer PBDEs at one-tenth the concentration as compared to the more rural Netarts Bay. Different pharmaceutical suites were detected during each sampling season. Variability in contaminant types and concentrations across seasons and between species and media (organisms versus sediment) indicates the limitation of using indicator species and/or sampling annually to determine contaminant loads at a site or for specific species. The results indicate the prevalence of legacy contaminants and CECs in relatively undeveloped coastal environments highlighting the need to improve policy and management actions to reduce contaminant releases into estuarine and marine waters and to deal with legacy compounds that remain long after prohibition of use. Our results point to the need for better understanding of the ecological and human health risks of exposure to the diverse cocktail of pollutants and harmful compounds that will continue to leach from estuarine sediments over time. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Hannah R.W.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Lomeli M.J.M.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Jones S.A.,040 SE Marine Science Drive
Fisheries Research | Year: 2015

We investigated how the addition of artificial light in the vicinity of the rigid-grate bycatch reduction device (BRD) and along the fishing line of an ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) trawl altered fish bycatch and ocean shrimp catch. In separate trials using double-rigged shrimp nets, with one net incorporating artificial lights and the other serving as a control, we 1) attached one to four Lindgren-Pitman Electralume® LED lights (colors green or blue) in locations around the rigid-grate BRD, and 2) attached 10 green lights along the trawl fishing line. Both experiments were conducted with rigid-grate BRDs with 19.1mmbar spacing installed in each net. Contrary to expectations, in 12 paired hauls the addition of artificial light around the rigid-grate increased the bycatch of eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), a threatened anadromous smelt species, by 104% (all by weight, P=0.0005) and slender sole (Lyopsetta exilis) by 77% (P=0.0082), with no effect on ocean shrimp catch or bycatch of other fishes (P>0.05). In 42 paired hauls, the addition of 10 LED lights along the fishing line dramatically reduced the bycatch of a wide variety of fishes with no effect on ocean shrimp catch (P>0.05). Bycatch of eulachon was reduced by 91% (P=0.0001). Bycatch of slender sole and other small flatfishes were each reduced by 69% (P<0.0005). Bycatch of darkblotched rockfish (Sebastes crameri), a commercially important but depressed rockfish species, was reduced by 82% (P=0.0001) while the bycatch of other juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) was reduced by 56% (P=0.0001). How the addition of artificial light is causing these changes in fish behavior and bycatch reduction is not known. However, in both experiments the addition of artificial light appears to have greatly increased the passage of fishes through restricted spaces (between BRD bars and the open space between trawl fishing line and groundline) that they typically would not pass through as readily under normal seafloor ambient light conditions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Frable B.W.,Oregon State University | Wolfe Wagman D.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Frierson T.N.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Aguilar A.,California State University, Los Angeles | Sidlauskas B.L.,Oregon State University
Fishery Bulletin | Year: 2015

The diverse predatory rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) support extensive commercial fisheries in the northeastern Pacific. Although 106 species of Sebastes are considered valid, many of the ecological, geographical, and morphological boundaries separating them lack clarity. We clarify one such boundary by separating the blue rockfish Sebastes mystinus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1881) into 2 species on the basis of molecular and morphological data. We redescribe S. mystinus, designate a lectotype, and describe the deacon rockfish, Sebastes diaconus n. sp. Aside from its unambiguous distinction at 6 microsatellite loci, the new species is most easily differentiated from S. mystinus by its possession of a solid in contrast with a blotched color pattern. Sebastes diaconus also possesses a prominent symphyseal knob versus a reduced or absent knob, a flat rather than rounded ventrum, and longer first and second anal-fin spines. Sebastes diaconus occurs from central California northward to British Columbia, Canada, and S. mystinus occurs from northern Oregon south to Baja California Sur, Mexico, indicating a broad region of sympatry in Oregon and northern California. Further collection and study are necessary to clarify distributional boundaries and to understand the ecology and mechanisms of segregation for this species. Additionally, fisheries assessments will need revision to account for the longstanding conflation of these 2 species. © 2015, National Marine Fisheries Service. All rights reserved.

Rankin P.S.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Hannah R.W.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Blume M.T.O.,040 SE Marine Science Drive
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

We used a high-resolution acoustic telemetry array to study the effect of seasonal hypoxia (defined as dissolved oxygen concentration [DO] < 2 mg l-1) on the movements of quillback rockfish Sebastes maliger and copper rockfish S. caurinus at Cape Perpetua Reef, Oregon, USA. Over 18 weeks in summer 2010, a period with both normoxic and hypoxic conditions at the reef, both species showed high site fidelity. Home range was variable within species, was much larger than previously shown, and was influenced by foray and relocation behavior. Several quillback rockfish forayed well off of the reef into sand and gravel areas. Foray departure time was synchronous among individuals and related to time of day (sunset). Hypoxic conditions reduced home range for copper rockfish by 33%, but home range was variable for quillback rockfish, with no change in foray behavior. We propose that the origin, chemistry, and temperature of the hypoxic water mass and the species' innate behavioral tendencies must be considered, along with DO, in determining the effects of hypoxia on fish. © 2013 Inter-Research.

Hannah R.W.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Rankin P.S.,040 SE Marine Science Drive | Blume M.T.O.,040 SE Marine Science Drive
Fisheries Research | Year: 2014

We evaluated the external signs of barotrauma and 48-h post-recompression survival for 54 canary and 81 yelloweye rockfish captured at depths of 46-174. m, much deeper than a similar prior experiment, but within the depth range of recreational fishery catch and discard. Survival was measured using specialized sea cages for holding individual fish. The external physical signs associated with extreme expansion and retention of swimbladder gas (pronounced barotrauma), including esophageal eversion, exophthalmia and ocular emphysema, were common for both species at these capture depths and were more frequent than in prior studies conducted at shallower depths. Despite similar frequencies of most external barotrauma signs, 48-h post-recompression survival of the two species diverged markedly as capture depth increased. Survival of yelloweye rockfish was above 80% across all capture depths, while survival of canary rockfish was lower, declining sharply to just 25% at capture depths greater than 135. m. Fish of both species that were alive after 48. h of caging displayed very few of the external signs of pronounced barotrauma and had a high submergence success rate when released at the surface. Logistic regression analysis, using a combined data set from this and an earlier experiment conducted at shallower capture depths, was used to more broadly evaluate factors influencing post-recompression survival. For canary rockfish, depth of capture was negatively related to survival (P< 0.0001), but the surface-bottom temperature differential was not (P>. 0.05). Exophthalmia and ocular emphysema were each negatively associated with survival for canary rockfish (P< 0.05). For yelloweye rockfish, no significant associations were found between post-recompression survival and capture depth, the surface-bottom temperature differential or any of the signs of pronounced barotrauma (P>. 0.05). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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