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Charlottesville, VA, United States

Mech A.M.,University of Georgia | Asaro C.,00 Natural Resources Drive | Cram M.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Coyle D.R.,University of Georgia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology

We provide the first report of Matsucoccus macrocicatrices Richards (Hemiptera: Mat-sucoccidae) feeding and reproducing on eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., in the southeastern United States. Until now, M. macrocicatrices had been reported only from the Canadian Atlantic Maritimes, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Entomological holdings of 27 major museums in eastern North America have no historical records for M. macrocicatrices from the southeastern region. However, our field surveys and molecular analyses (DNA barcoding) have resulted in the collection and positive identification of M. macrocicatrices in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition to the new geographic range, M. macrocicatrices is also being associated with dieback and mortality of all diameter classes of P. strobus leading to concern about a potential shift from its historically nonpestiferous presence on the host tree. On P. strobus, M. macrocicatrices was found embedded in cankers or present on top of the bark with necrotic tissue under their feeding area, indicating that they may be creating wounds for opportunistic pathogenic fungi to infest. Further, we found M. macrocicatrices living outside of the epiphytic mats of its symbiotic fungus, Septobasidium pinicola Snell. This study shows that M. macrocicatrices is now widespread in the southeastern United States, with implications for the future survival and regeneration of P. strobus in eastern North America. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

Joseph S.V.,University of Georgia | Joseph S.V.,Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Mayfield III A.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Dalusky M.J.,University of Georgia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Entomological Science

Understanding the seasonal phenology of an insect pest in a specific geographic region is essential for optimizing the timing of management actions or research activities. We examined the phenology of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, near the southern limit of the range of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L) Carriere, in the Appalachians of northern Georgia, where adelgid phenology has not been previously reported. Adelges tsugaeinfested hemlock trees were visited at various sites from 2004 - 2007. Two hemlock twigs were collected from each of 3 hemlock trees per site, except during the final 3 months of sampling when 1 twig was collected from each of 3 trees per site. Progrediens adults initiated opposition by midMay, 2-4 weeks earlier than has been reported for more northern parts of the adelgid range. Sistens eggs were present until late-June (2006) or early-July (2004 - 2005). After aestivation, sistens nymphs resumed development by early October. Sistens adults were first found in early January and were present until midMay. Progrediens eggs were noted as early as February (2005 - 2007), were abundant in March and April, and persisted until midMay. Progrediens crawlers were present by early March and occurred throughout the next 2-3 months. Progrediens adults were found between midMay and late June. This information may be used to help optimize release of biological control agents to insure proper synchronization with adelgid life stages and to aid in collection of food for predator rearing facilities. Source

Asaro C.,00 Natural Resources Drive | Creighton J.,00 Natural Resources Drive
Journal of Economic Entomology

Regeneration pests of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) threaten growth and survival in intensively managed loblolly pine plantations throughout the southeastern United States. The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), in particular, often reduces growth of loblolly pine but has been difficult to control with traditional insecticides due to multiple annual generations and multi-year infestations which are difficult to predict in timing and location. Relatively new systemic insecticide products offer a solution in that their efficacy persists through multiple generations and years after a single application. Efficacy of systemic imidacloprid and fipronil were evaluated side by side across multiple sites in Virginia. Significant reductions in Nantucket pine tip moth damage were noted in trees treated with either the imidacloprid or fipronil product compared with check trees. After 2 yr, growth improvement of treated trees relative to controls was modest and not significant at all sites, but per acre volume indices were significantly greater in treated blocks as a result of higher tree survival. Reduced seedling mortality was attributed primarily to prevention of damage by pales weevil, Hylobius pales Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), by both insecticide treatments. Control of pales weevil in addition to pine tip moth suggests that systemic insecticide products with a long window of efficacy might control additional nontargeted pests. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source

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