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Charlottesville, VA, United States

Barnes B.F.,University of Georgia | Meeker J.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Johnson W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Asaro C.,00 Natural Resources Dr. | And 2 more authors.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2014

The recent introduction of Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) into North America has raised interest in native siricids and their parasitoids to better understand the potential impact of S. noctilio. In the southeastern United States, we assessed various techniques to capture native siricids and their parasitoids using traps, lures, and trap trees. During 2009-2011, in total, 2,434 wasps were caught including Eriotremex formosanus (Matsumura), Sirex nigricornis (F.), Tremex columba (L.), and Urocerus cressoni (Norton) (Siricidae), and Ibalia leucospoides ensiger Norton (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae). Traps and trap trees, respectively, captured 14 and 86% of total siricids and hymenopteran parasitoids. Majority of siricids (76%) were caught in Louisiana, where 486 I. l. ensiger (28% parasitism rate) were also reared from trap trees. The Sirex lure alone and Sirex lure with ethanol captured two to five times greater numbers of siricids than unbaited traps. Trap types had no effect on catches of siricids. Fewer siricids were caught in traps baited with ethanol alone than in those baited with other lures in Georgia. We caught three to four times greater numbers of S. nigricornis in traps with fresh pine billets (with foliage) as a lure than traps baited with Sirex lure in Louisiana. More S. nigricornis and I. l. ensiger emerged from cut and felled trap trees created in early rather than late November; these trees also had 14 times greater emergence than those treated with Dicamba. Our results indicate that use of host material and timing may be important for monitoring populations and communities of siricids and their parasitoid species in southern pine forests. © 2014 Entomological Society of America. Source

Watson A.C.,TerraSource Valuation LLC | Sullivan J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Asaro C.,00 Natural Resources Dr.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2013

Forest management that reduces southern pine beetle (SPB) risk benefits not only the landowners, but all who draw benefits from southern pine forests, including other owners whose risk is reduced by landscape-wide efforts. One such practice is pre-commercial thinning (PCT) of pine stands, which may be unattractive to landowners due to substantial upfront costs and delayed or uncertain financial return. Because societal benefits are not fully realized by those who implement PCT, there may be a market externality whereby it is underprovided. Virginia's Pine Bark Beetle Prevention Program attempts to correct this externality by reimbursing a portion of PCT costs. To examine the efficacy of cost sharing in promoting participation, a survey was sent to 1200 NIPF landowners in Virginia, where southern pine is prevalent and SPB is a concern. Willingness to participate is measured using a referendum-style question for PCT on a hypothetical, qualifying property over a cost-share range of 20% to 90%. Results of discrete choice models indicate that cost sharing has a significant, positive effect on willingness to participate overall, though results indicate that increasing reimbursement above the 50% level is unlikely to increase participation substantively. Education and ownership preferences are also significant predictors of willingness to participate, with potential implications for program targeting and marketing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Miller D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Asaro C.,00 Natural Resources Dr. | Crowe C.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Duerr D.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

In 2006, we examined the flight responses of 43 species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with binary lure blends of 1) ipsenol + ipsdienol, 2) ethanol + α-pinene, and a quaternary lure blend of 3) ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + α-pinene in the southeastern United States. In addition, we monitored responses of Buprestidae, Elateridae, and Curculionidae commonly associated with pine longhorn beetles. Field trials were conducted in mature pine (Pinus pp.) stands in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia. The following species preferred traps baited with the quaternary blend over those baited with ethanol + α- pinene: Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Astylopsis arcuata (LeConte), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Monochamus scutellatus (Say), Monochamus titillator (F.) complex, Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), Buprestis consularis Gory, Buprestis lineata F. (Buprestidae), Ips avulsus (Eichhoff), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), Orthotomicus caelatus (Eichhoff), and Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) (Curculionidae). The addition of ipsenol and ipsdienol had no effect on catches of 17 other species of bark and wood boring beetles in traps baited with ethanol and α-pinene. Ethanol + α-pinene interrupted the attraction of Ips avulsus, I. grandicollis, and Pityophthorus Eichhoff spp. (but not I. calligraphus) (Curculionidae) to traps baited with ipsenol + ipsdienol. Our results support the use of traps baited with a quaternary blend of ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + α-pinene for common saproxylic beetles in pine forests of the southeastern United States. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source

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